Supervisor: R. Zhao; Email:

The Major in Plant Biology provides a broad education in all areas of contemporary biology, and affords students an opportunity to concentrate on courses in upper years that are focused on plant biology. This program is suitable for students with an interest in the biochemistry, biotechnology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, physiology, and/or development of plants.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Plant Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 full credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.
Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
Students are required to complete a total of 8.5 credits.

Required Courses and Suggested Course Sequence:

First Year
1. 1.0 credit as follows:
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 credit as follows:
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms

3. 0.5 credit from the following:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology

Second Year
4. 2.5 credits as follows:
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

5. 0.5 credit from the following:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

Third Year
6. 2.0 credits as follows:
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
[ BIOC15H3 Genetics or BIOC17H3 Microbiology or BIOC50H3 Macroevolution]

Third/ Fourth Year
7. 0.5 credit from the following:
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology and Environmental Biology
BIOD21H3 Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOD62H3 Species and Speciation
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis

Fourth Year
8. 0.5 credit from the following:
[ BIOD30H3 Plant Research and Biotechnology: Addressing Global Problems or [any of the following research-based courses if the research utilizes plants: BIOC99H3, BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 or BIOD99Y3]]