GIS is based on the integration of digital spatial data, mapping software, and spatial analysis tools. GIS has been a core method in Geographical research for almost two decades, but is also rapidly growing in importance outside Geography, in part because of the huge amounts of new spatial data being generated by ubiquitous sensors such as smartphones with GPS locators.

A growing number of research areas and careers require knowledge of GIS and cartographic presentation skills. This minor program provides training in the theory and practical application of Geographic Information Science and systems for spatial analysis, spatial data management, and cartographic representation, and is an excellent option for students pursuing Human Geography, City Studies, Critical Development Studies, Historical and Cultural Studies, Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology, Environmental Studies and Environmental Science.

Program Requirements
This program requires students to complete 4.0 credits as follows:

1. At least 0.5 credit from the following:
GGRA30H3 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Empirical Reasoning
EESC03H3 Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing

2. 2.5 credits as follows:
GGRB30H3 Fundamentals of GIS I
GGRB32H3 Fundamentals of GIS II
GGRC30H3 Advanced GIS
GGRC32H3 Essential Spatial Analysis
GGRD30H3 GIS Research Project

3. 1.0 credit from the following:
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming
CITC18H3 Transportation Policy Analysis*
EESC03H3 Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing (if not used to complete component 1 of the requirements)
GGRC12H3 Transportation Geography
GGRC15H3 Spatial Databases and Applications
GGRC27H3 Location and Spatial Development
GGRC34H3 Crowd-sourced Urban Geographies
GGRC42H3 Making Sense of Data: Applied Multivariate Analysis
CITD01H3 City Issues and Strategies*
GGRD01H3 Supervised Research Project*
GGRD08H3 Research Seminar in Environmental Geography*
GGRD25H3 Research Seminar in Urban Spaces*
GGRD31H3 Independent Research Project*
*Note: Permission to count these courses towards the Minor in Geographic Information Science (GIS) must be received from the Departmental Chair or the Program Advisor, and will be granted in cases where the student’s major research project employs GIS research methods.