Supervisor: R. Sturge Email:

Biology is the study of life and this major program in Biology is meant to provide students with a solid basic knowledge of this vast discipline, while also allowing the student to tailor their program in the upper years toward one or more biological sub-disciplines. Many of the world's most important and timely issues (medical science and disease, conservation and biodiversity, food and energy supplies) are issues that require citizens to have a firm understanding of biological principles and practices.
The Major program in Biology (Science) cannot be combined with any other Major program offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 full credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.
Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 8.0 required credits.

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms

3. 0.5 Credit in Mathematics or Statistics
Choose from:
MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences
MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology

Second Year
4. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
[ BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology or ( BIOB30H3) Mammalian Physiology I]
[ BIOB38H3 Plants and Society or ( BIOB31H3) Plant Physiology]
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

5. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
Choose from:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy Laboratory
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

Third Year
6. 1.5 Credits of Additional C-level Biology Courses
Choose from: Any BIO C-level courses offered by the department.
Note: NROC34H3 (Neuroethology) may also be used toward fulfilling this requirement.

Fourth Year
7. 0.5 Credit of Additional D-Level Biology Courses
Choose from: Any BIO D-level courses offered by the department. Note: that this includes the Biology Supervised Studies and Directed Research courses ( BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 and BIOD99Y3).