Biological Sciences

Faculty List
  • M.C.B. Andrade, B.Sc. (Simon Fraser), M.Sc. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Cornell), Professor
  • I. Anreiter, B.Sc. (Universidade Técnica de Lisboa), M.Sc. (Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Ph.D. (Toronto), Assistant Professor
  • A. Ashok, B.Sc. (Sheffield), Ph.D. (Brown), Professor, Teaching Stream
  • R. Boonstra, B.Sc. (Calgary), Ph.D. (British Columbia), Professor Emeritus
  • S.A. Brunt, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Toronto), Associate Professor, Teaching Stream
  • M.W. Cadotte, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Windsor), Ph.D. (Tennessee), Professor
  • I.M. Campbell, B.Sc. (Alberta), M.A., Ph.D. (Toronto), Associate Professor Emeritus
  • R.E. Dengler, B.Sc., Ph.D. (California, Davis), Associate Professor Emeritus
  • G. Filion, B.Sc. (Concordia), M.Sc. (École Normale Supérieure), Ph.D. (Université Denis Diderot), Assistant Professor
  • M.F. Filosa, B.S. (St. Peter's), M.S. (Fordham), Ph.D. (Princeton), Associate Professor Emeritus
  • M.J. Fitzpatrick, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Brock), Ph.D. (Toronto), Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream
  • K. Gan, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Simon Fraser), Ph.D. (Simon Fraser), Assistant Professor
  • S. Gazzarrini, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Milan), Ph.D. (Tuebingen), Professor
  • E. Gonzales-Vigil, B.Sc. (National Agrarian University), Ph.D. (Michigan State), Assistant Professor
  • J.W. Gurd, B.A. (Mount Allison), Ph.D. (McGill), Professor Emeritus
  • C. Guzzo, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Queen's), Assistant Professor
  • R.E. Harrison, B.Sc. (Winnipeg), M.Sc. (Manitoba), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor
  • C.A. Hasenkampf, B.Sc. (Loyola), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Florida State), Professor Emerita
  • M. Koyama, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Tokyo), Assistant Professor
  • N.R. Lovejoy, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Cornell), Professor
  • J.S. MacIvor, B.Sc. (Guelph), M.Sc. (Saint Mary's), Ph.D. (York), Assistant Professor
  • N.E. Mandrak, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor
  • A.C. Mason, B.Sc. (Guelph), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor
  • P. McGowan, B.Sc. (Concordia), M.A., Ph.D. (Duke), Professor
  • P.K. Molnar, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munich), Ph.D. (Alberta), Assistant Professor
  • G.A. Mott, B.Sc. (British Columbia), Ph.D. (Harvard), Assistant Professor
  • C. Nalewajko, B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc. (University College London), Professor Emerita
  • J.E. Nash, B.Sc. (Aberdeen), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Manchester), Associate Professor
  • X. Pan, B.Sc. (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University), M.Sc. (Dalhousie), Ph.D. (Alberta), Assistant Professor
  • K.N. Persaud, B.Sc. (Toronto), B.Ed. (Western Ontario), Ph.D. (McMaster), Associate Professor, Teaching Stream
  • C. Pickett, B.Sc., M.A. (Toronto), Senior Lecturer Emerita
  • C. Porteus, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Guelph), Ph.D. (British Columbia), Assistant Professor
  • S. Rajavasireddy, B.Sc. (Osmania University), M.Sc. (Tat Institute of Fundamental Research), Ph.D. (McGill University), Assistant Professor
  • S.G. Reid, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Ottawa), Associate Professor
  • C.D. Riggs, B.Sc. (North Carolina), Ph.D. (Florida State), Associate Professor Emeritus
  • J.C. Ritchie, B.Sc. (Aberdeen), Ph.D. (Sheffield), D.Sc. (Aberdeen), F.R.S.C., Professor Emeritus
  • J.C. Silver, B.Sc., Ph.D. (CUNY), Professor Emerita
  • I. Stehlik, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Zurich), Associate Professor, Teaching Stream
  • R. Sturge, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Toronto), Ph.D. (UMBC), Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream
  • M.R. Terebiznik, B.Sc., Ph.D. (U.B.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina), Associate Professor
  • T.R. Thiele, B.A. (Hamilton College, Clinton, NY), Ph.D. (Oregon), Assistant Professor
  • B. Treanor, B.Sc. (Calgary), Ph.D. (Imperial College London), Associate Professor
  • G.C. Vanlerberghe, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Western Ontario), Ph.D. (Queen's), Professor
  • Y. Wang, B.Sc. (Shanxi University), M.Sc. (Boise State), Ph.D. (Toronto), Assistant Professor
  • J.T. Weir, Ph.D. (UBC), Professor
  • K.C. Welch, B.Sc. (Trinity University), M.A., Ph.D. (Santa Barbara), Associate Professor
  • D.D. Williams, B.Sc. (North Wales), Dip. Ed. (Liverpool), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Waterloo), D.Sc. (Wales), Professor Emeritus
  • G.R. Williams, B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc. (Liverpool), F.R.S.C., Professor Emeritus
  • J.H. Youson, B.A. (Victoria), M.Sc. (McGill), Ph.D. (Western Ontario), Professor Emeritus
  • R. Zhao, B.Sc. (Peking University), Ph.D. (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences), Associate Professor

Associate Chair Undergraduate: Professor S. Brunt
Undergraduate Program Administrator: biosciundergrad.utsc@utoronto.ca

Program Area Supervisors:

Biology Major: E. Bell Email: biology-major@utsc.utoronto.ca
Biology Minor: Email: biology-minor@utsc.utoronto.ca
Conservation and Biodiversity: I. Stehlik;  Email: biodiversity@utsc.utoronto.ca 
Human Biology: S.G. Reid; Email: human-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Integrative Biology: S. Brunt, Email: integrative-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease: S. Brunt, Email: molecular-biology-immunology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: M. Fitzpatrick Email: molecular-biology-biotechnology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Biology: R. Sturge Email: biology-major@utsc.utoronto.ca
Plant Biology: J. Brown Email: plant-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca

Please note: Program Supervisors oversee both the co-op and non-co-op versions of the program 

Biological Sciences offers eight Specialist programs: Conservation and Biodiversity, Conservation and Biodiversity Co-op, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Human Biology, Human Biology Co-op, Integrative Biology, and Integrative Biology Co-op. 

The Conservation and Biodiversity program enables students to explore the origins and maintenance of the Earth's astonishing biodiversity using a variety of perspectives and approaches. In the Molecular Biology and Biotechnology programs, students investigate the cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms underlying life processes. The Human Biology program emphasizes the biology of the human species and is tailored for students who wish to pursue a career in a health-related field. The Integrative Biology program approaches biological questions in a multidisciplinary fashion, with course work in a range of biology sub-disciplines.

Biological Sciences also offers ten Major programs and one Minor program. The Major programs (in Biology, Biology Co-op, Conservation and Biodiversity, Conservation and Biodiversity Co-op, Human Biology, Human Biology Co-op, Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Co-op, Immunology and Disease, Immunology and Disease Co-op, Plant Biology, and Plant Biology Co-op) allow students to combine their studies in biology with studies in either an unrelated program or in a complementary Major program such as Neuroscience, Environmental Science, Biochemistry, Health Studies or Psychology. The Minor program in Biology is intended for students who have an interest in biology but wish to focus their studies in a different discipline.

Students are advised to consult the specific program requirements for their degree, and, if necessary, to meet with the appropriate program supervisor for advice on completion of their program requirements. In some instances, courses from other University of Toronto campuses or other institutions may be used to satisfy program requirements, but such substitutions must be pre-approved by the program supervisor. Students should check the information that follows thoroughly. Other useful information can be found on the Department of Biological Sciences Website.

Effective July 1, 2023, the (Joint) Specialist in Paramedicine is now administered in the Department of Health and Society.  

Pre-program Supervision in Biological Sciences

Biological Sciences has a pre-program supervisor available to advise students who have not yet chosen a program (primarily first-year students) on the degree and program-related matters. Please contact Shamim Sarang at biosciundergrad.utsc@utoronto.ca if you have questions of this nature.

Combined Degree Programs, Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science

The Combined Degree Programs for UTSC Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) with the Master of Environmental Science (MEnvSc) offered by the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences allow exceptional students who are registered in one of the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs identified below to apply during Year 3 of their studies, and be considered, for admission to the MEnvSc program. They are designed for students interested in pursuing a career in environmental sciences within the green-sector, geosciences, industry, consulting, government and policy organizations. These Combined Degree Programs give students the opportunity to: (1) begin exploring their academic interests in Year 4 of their studies; (2) complete 1.0 credit in courses that may be counted towards both degrees; and (3) enrol in the MEnvSc in the Summer session between Years 4 and 5 to complete either a two-month academic or internship opportunity, in addition to the mandatory four-month academic or internship opportunity completed in the MEnvSc program alone.

Combined Degree Programs options are:

  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Integrative Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science

For more information, including Admission and Program requirements, see the Combined Degree Programs section of the Calendar.

Combined Degree Programs, Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching

The Combined Degree Programs for UTSC Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) /Honours Bachelor of Arts (HBA) with the Master of Teaching (MT) offered by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education provide students with a direct pathway to the completion, in 6 years, of their Undergraduate degree, Ontario Teacher’s Certificate of Qualifications, and Master’s degree.​ These Combined Degree Programs allow students to complete 1.0 credit in courses that may be counted towards both degrees.

The Combined Degree Programs options are:

  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Human Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Human Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Integrative Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology Immunology and Disease (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Plant Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching

For more information, including Admission and Program requirements, see the Combined Degree Programs section of the Calendar.

Program Combination Restrictions in the Biological Sciences

Students interested in completing a Double Major may combine any two of the following programs offered by the Department of Biological Sciences; Major Program in Conservation and Biodiversity (Science), Major Program in Human Biology (Science); Major Program in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease (Science); and Major Program in Plant Biology (Science). Although students are permitted to combine these programs, anyone considering doing so is strongly encouraged to complete one of the Department's Specialist programs instead.

No program combinations other than those listed above are permitted, including any combinations with the Major and Minor programs in Biology

Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence

The Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence will recognize students’ research accomplishments in experiential, research-based learning experiences throughout their undergraduate programs.  Please see the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence webpage for more details on the certificate requirements including enrolment in undergraduate research opportunity courses.

Enrolment in Biological Sciences Courses

Priority access to B-, C-, and D-level Biology courses is given to students enrolled in Biological Sciences Specialist (Joint) and Major programs and other programs requiring these courses. At the beginning of the Fall/Winter registration period, the courses will be restricted to these students. Provided space is available, the courses will then open up to other students.
Some courses in Biological Sciences (BIO) may include Ancillary fees.

Second Year Core Courses

Students are STRONGLY advised to take ALL of the second year core courses [BIOB10H3, BIOB11H3BIOB34H3, BIOB38H3, BIOB50H3, BIOB51H3, BIOB90H3] as well as core lab courses [BIOB12H3 or BIOB32H3 or BIOB33H3 or BIOB52H3] during their second year of study. This will assist in the selection of upper-level courses, provide the greatest flexibility to satisfy the prerequisites of such courses, and give the background and experience needed to excel in upper-level courses. Failure to take the entire set of core courses in the second year can result in course timetabling conflicts and unfavourable exam schedules (e.g. back-to-back exams) in your upper years.

Required Courses in Cognate Disciplines

Students are strongly advised to take all required first and second-year courses in disciplines such as Chemistry, Physics, Math, and Computer Science before their third year of study.  This will avoid course timetabling conflicts and will enable enrolment in upper-level courses in our programs that require these prerequisites.

Experiential Learning and Outreach

Please note, several faculty members in Biological Sciences offer experiential learning opportunities in their courses (In-reach) which are advertised on the Current Placement Opportunities website.

For a community-based experiential learning opportunity in your academic field of interest, consider the course CTLB03H3, which can be found in the Teaching and Learning section of the Calendar.

Biological Sciences Programs

COMBINED DEGREE PROGRAMS, HONOURS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE / MASTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

The Combined Degree Programs for UTSC Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) with the Master of Environmental Science (MEnvSc) offered by the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences allow exceptional students who are registered in one of the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs identified below to apply during Year 3 of their studies, and be considered, for admission to the MEnvSc program. They are designed for students interested in pursuing a career in environmental sciences within the green-sector, geosciences, industry, consulting, government and policy organizations. These Combined Degree Programs give students the opportunity to: (1) begin exploring their academic interests in Year 4 of their studies; (2) complete 1.0 credit in courses that may be counted towards both degrees; and (3) enrol in the MEnvSc in the Summer session between Years 4 and 5 in order to complete either a two-month academic or internship opportunity, in addition to the mandatory four-month academic or internship opportunity completed in the MEnvSc program alone.

Contact Information:
Combined Degree Programs Coordinator
Email: cdp.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Combined Degree Programs options are:

Department of Biological Sciences

  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Integrative Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences

  • Global Environmental Change (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Global Environmental Change (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Chemistry (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Chemistry (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Geoscience (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Geoscience (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Physics (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science
  • Environmental Physics (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Environmental Science

Application Process:

  • Applicants must apply to the Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) program, the MEnvSc program, and the CDP.
  • Qualified students in Year 3 of their HBSc degree program apply to the MEnvSc program and their chosen CPD through the SGS Online Admission Application system:
    • students will select one of the three fields of study within the MEnvSc program at the time of application:
      • Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation
      • Conservation and Biodiversity, or
      • Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems
    • those accepted will receive a conditional offer to start the MEnvSc program upon completion of their HBSc program and degree requirements.

Minimum Admission Requirements:

To be considered for conditional admission to the MEnvSc program and the selected CDP, applicants must meet the following admission requirements:

  • Be admitted to the HBSc degree and one of the above listed undergraduate programs at UTSC.
  • Meet the minimum admission requirements of the School of Graduate Studies and the MEnvSc program.
  • Be enrolled full-time and in good standing in the HBSc program:
    • have a B+ average (CGPA of 3.3) or higher in Year 2;
    • carry a full course load of 5.0 credits each year (i.e., complete 5.0 credits over the three academic sessions - Fall, Winter, Summer); where necessary, exceptions will be made for students in Co-op programs.
  • Complete the following undergraduate courses as part of the HBSc degree requirements:
    • Students in the Specialist in Conservation and Biodiversity or the Specialist in Integrative Biology:
      • BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology (0.5 credit)
      • BIOD54H3 Applied Conservation Biology (0.5 credit)
    • Students in the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs in Global Environmental Change, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Geoscience, or Environmental Physics:
      • EESC24H3 Advanced Readings in Environmental Science (0.5 credit)
      • EESD10Y3 Research Project in Environmental Science (1.0 credit)

To be given full, unconditional admission to the MEnvSc program, applicants must meet the following admission requirements:

  • Maintain a B+ average (CGPA of 3.3) or higher in their final year of study in the HBSc program or over upper-level (C- and D-level) courses.
  • Achieve at least a grade of B- (70%) in both of the graduate courses taken in Year 4 of undergraduate study; these courses must be chosen in consultation with the Graduate Program Supervisor:
    • for the field in Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: EES 1133H Climate Change Science and Modelling (0.5 credit), plus an additional 0.5 credit;
    • for the field in Conservation and Biodiversity: EES 3002H Conservation Policy (0.5 credit), plus an additional 0.5 credit;
    • for the field in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems: 1.0 credit.
  • Be conferred with the HBSc degree.

Program Requirements and Path to Completion:

  • Year 4: HBSc degree requirements
    • students must complete all HBSc program requirements and degree requirements;
    • students are expected to carry a full course load of 5.0 credits over the three academic sessions (Fall, Winter, Summer) of each year; where necessary, exceptions will be made for students in Co-op programs;
    • students who receive a conditional offer of admission to the CDP must complete the following undergraduate courses:
      • students in the Specialist in Conservation and Biodiversity or the Specialist in Integrative Biology:
        • BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology (0.5 credit)
        • BIOD54H3 Applied Conservation Biology (0.5 credit)
      • students in the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs in Global Environmental Change, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Geoscience, or Environmental Physics:
        • EESC24H3 Advanced Readings in Environmental Science (0.5 credit)
        • EESD10Y3 Research Project in Environmental Science (1.0 credit)
    • students must complete 1.0 credit in graduate courses, chosen in consultation with the Graduate Program Supervisor, as follows:
      • for the field in Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: EES 1133H Climate Change Science and Modelling (0.5 credit), plus an additional 0.5 credit;
      • for the field in Conservation and Biodiversity: EES 3002H Conservation Policy (0.5 credit), plus an additional 0.5 credit;
      • for the field in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems: 1.0 credit.
  • Optional registration in the Summer session prior to Year 5:
    • students complete one of the following opportunities:
      • EES 4001H Internship Training (0.5 credit)
      • EES 4003H Academic Training (0.5 credit)
  • Year 5: Remaining MEnvSc program and degree requirements.

COMBINED DEGREE PROGRAMS, HONOURS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE OR HONOURS BACHELOR OF ARTS / MASTER OF TEACHING

The Combined Degree Programs for UTSC Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc)/ Honours Bachelor of Arts (HBA) with the Master of Teaching (MT) offered by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are designed for students who are interested in a career in Education. They allow exceptional students who are registered in one of the 50 identified Specialist and Major programs to gain early admission to the MT, which is a full-time professional program that leads to both a Master's degree and eligibility to become a certified teacher in Ontario. Students who successfully complete one of the Combined Degree Programs listed below will earn two University of Toronto degrees (HBA/ HBSc and MT), and be recommended to the Ontario College of Teachers for a Certificate of Qualifications as elementary or secondary school teachers.

Contact Information:
Combined Degree Programs Coordinator
Email: cdp.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Combined Degree Programs options are:

Department of Anthropology

  • Evolutionary Anthropology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Evolutionary Anthropology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Socio-Cultural Anthropology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • Socio-Cultural Anthropology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Arts, Culture and Media

  • Theatre and Performance Studies (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Biological Sciences

  • Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Conservation and Biodiversity (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Human Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Human Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Integrative Biology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Plant Biology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching

Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences

  • Mathematics (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Mathematics (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Mathematics (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Mathematics (Major Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching

Department of English

  • English (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • English (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • English (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • English (Major Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Language Studies

  • French (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • French (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • French (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • French (Major Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Historical and Cultural Studies

  • History (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • History (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Human Geography

  • Human Geography (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • Human Geography (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences

  • Medicinal and Biological Chemistry (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Medicinal and Biological Chemistry (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Biochemistry (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Biochemistry (Major Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Chemistry (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Chemistry (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Chemistry (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Chemistry (Major Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Global Environmental Change (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Global Environmental Change (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Environmental Chemistry (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Environmental Chemistry (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Environmental Physics (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Environmental Physics (Specialist Co-op), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Physics and Astrophysics (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Physics and Astrophysics (Major), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching
  • Physical and Mathematical Sciences (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Science/ Master of Teaching

Department of Sociology

  • Sociology (Specialist), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching
  • Sociology (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/ Master of Teaching

Students applying to the MT must have two teaching subjects regardless of the concentration they are applying to (Primary/Junior, Junior/Intermediate, or Intermediate/Senior), and must have completed at least 6.0 credits in their first teaching subject and at least 3.0 credits in their second teaching subject (note: both French as a Second Language and Science require at least 6.0 credits in university courses even when they are a second teaching subject). Each of the programs listed below includes a minimum of 6.0 credits in courses that can be applied towards the completion of the prerequisites for the identified OISE teaching subject(s).

UTSC Programs Fit With OISE MT Teaching Subjects:

UTSC ProgramMT Teaching Subjects - Required Number of Courses/Credits Completed
- Specialist/ Specialist Co-op in Medicinal and Biological ChemistryScience - Chemistry, or
Science - Biology, or
Science - General
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyScience - Biology, or
Science - General
- Major/Major Co-op In Biochemistry
- Major in Biology
- Specialist in Conservation and Biodiversity
- Major in Conservation and Biodiversity
- Specialist in Human Biology
- Major in Human Biology
- Specialist in Integrative Biology
- Major in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease
- Major in Plant Biology
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Global Environmental Change

Science - Biology

 

- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Chemistry
- Major/Major Co-op in Chemistry
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Environmental Chemistry
Science - Chemistry
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Environmental Physics
- Specialist in Physics and Astrophysics
- Major in Physics and Astrophysics
- Specialist in Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Science - Physics
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in Mathematics
- Major/Major Co-op in Mathematics
Mathematics
- Specialist in Evolutionary Anthropology
- Major in Evolutionary Anthropology
- Specialist in Socio-Cultural Anthropology
- Major in Socio-Cultural Anthropology
- Specialist in Sociology
- Major in Sociology
Social Science - General
- Major in Theatre and Performance StudiesDramatic Arts
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in English
- Major/Major Co-op in English
English
- Specialist/Specialist Co-op in French
- Major/Major Co-op in French
French (Second Language)
- Specialist in History
- Major in History
History
- Specialist in Human Geography
- Major in Human Geography
Geography

Application Process:

  • Applicants must apply to the Honours Bachelor of Arts (HBA)/ Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) program, the MT program and the CDP.
  • Qualified students in Year 3 of their HBA/ HBSc degree program apply to the MT program; those accepted will receive a conditional offer to start the MT program upon completion of their HBA/ HBSc program and degree requirements.

Minimum Admission Requirements:

To be considered for conditional admission to the MT program and the selected CDP, applicants must meet the following admission requirements:

  • Be admitted to the HBA/ HBSc degree and at least one of the above-listed undergraduate programs at UTSC.
  • Meet the admission requirements of the School of Graduate Studies and the MT program.
  • Be enrolled full-time and in good standing in the HBA/ HBSc program(s):
    • have a B+ average or higher in Year 2;
    • carry a full course load of 5.0 credits each year (i.e., complete 5.0 credits over the three academic sessions - Fall, Winter, Summer); where necessary, exceptions will be made for students in Co-op programs.
  • Have completed at least half of the teaching subjects' prerequisite courses - i.e., 3.0 credits in the first teaching subject and at least 1.5 credits in the second teaching subject (or 3.0 credits if the second teaching subject is French as a Second Language or Science) - by the end of Year 3.
  • Provide at least two letters of reference (see: http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/mt/Home.html).
  • Provide a Statement of Intent indicating their preferred concentration (Primary/Junior, Junior Intermediate, or Intermediate/Senior) and describe three significant teaching and/or teaching-related experiences they have had, especially with groups of children; with reference to these experiences, applicants should identify insights gained about teaching and learning, and explain how, based on these insights, they might contribute to the education of students in today's schools. On their resumé, applicants must list, in chart form, the extent of their teaching experiences; the chart should include dates, location of the experience, applicants' role, and number of hours working with students.
  • Meet other qualifications as specified by the MT program, including: a police record check, relevant teaching experiences, academic and professional references, and satisfying teaching subject prerequisites.

To be given full, unconditional admission to the MT program, applicants must meet the following admission requirements:

  • Maintain a B+ average or higher in their final year of study in the HBA/ HBSc program, or over upper-level (C- and D-level) courses.
  • Achieve at least a B+ average in 1.0 credit in graduate courses taken in Year 4.
  • Regardless of the concentration to which they are applying (Primary/Junior, Junior/Intermediate, Intermediate/Senior), complete the prerequisites for both the first and second teaching subjects; students are encouraged to consult often with their HBA/HBSc Program Supervisor, as well as the Combined Degree Programs Coordinator.
  • Be conferred with the HBA/ HBSc degree.

Program Requirements and Path to Completion:

  • Year 1 to 4: HBA/ HBSc degree requirements:
    • students must complete all of the HBA/ HBSc program and degree requirements;
    • students are expected to carry a full course load of 5.0 credits over the three academic sessions (Fall, Winter, Summer) of each year;
    • in Year 3, qualified students may apply to the MT and the CDP and may be offered conditional admission to the MT;
    • by the end of Year 3 students must complete at least 3.0 credits required for the first teaching subject, and at least 1.5 credits for the second teaching subject (or 3.0 credits if the second teaching subject is French as a Second Language or Science);
    • in Year 4, students who receive a conditional offer of admission to the CDP must complete any two of the graduate elective half courses recommended by OISE for CDP students; these courses (1.0 credit) are counted towards the completion of both the HBA/ HBSc degree and the MT program and degree; CDP students are graded as graduate students in these courses and are required to meet graduate expectations;
    • by the end of Year 4, students must complete all HBA/ HBSc program requirements and degree requirements, including at least 6.0 credits required for the first teaching subject, and  at least 3.0 credits for the second teaching subject (or 6.0 credits if the second teaching subject is French as a Second Language or Science).
  • Year 5 and 6: Remaining MT program and degree requirements:
    • students must complete 11.0 credits as identified by OISE.

SPECIALIST PROGRAM IN CONSERVATION AND BIODIVERSITY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1150

Supervisor Email: biodiversity@utsc.utoronto.ca

This program presents a foundation for understanding how ecology and evolution shape organismal features (from morphology and physiology to behaviour) and the structure and function of communities and ecosystems. Ultimately these processes determine the broad patterns of organization of life on earth and biodiversity. The challenges to biodiversity are daunting. Habitat destruction, biological invasions and climate change are causing loss of species and disruption of ecosystems worldwide. Graduates are trained to understand and actively seek solutions to these problems. This program will show how ecological and evolutionary perspectives can be used to understand and predict the outcome of dynamic interactions among organisms, populations, species, and communities. Students will be well trained to take positions in government agencies, consulting firms or NGO's, able to continue with graduate studies in science for academic careers, or able to pursue careers in business or law related to environmental issues, stewardship and sustainable development.

Note: This program was formerly known as the Specialist in Biodiversity, Ecology & Evolution (BSc).

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Specialist Program in Conservation and Biodiversity after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.0.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 14.5 required credits.

A. Required Courses

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Mathematics
Choose from:
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences or MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences]
and
[MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences or MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 0.5 Credit in Physics
Choose from:
PHYA10H3 Physics I for the Physical Sciences
PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences

5. 0.5 Credit in Computer Science
Choose from:
CSCA08H3 Introduction to Computer Science I (most appropriate course for computer science students)
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming (most appropriate course for non-computer science students)

Second Year
6. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

7. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

8. 0.5 Credit in Statistics
Choose from:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology

Third Year
9. 2.5 Credits of C-level Ecology and Evolution Foundation Courses
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC50H3 Macroevolution
BIOC52H3 Field Ecology
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology and Environmental Biology
BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology

Third/Fourth Year
10. 4.0 credits of C- & D-level courses from Bins 1 and 2 below. This must include at least 1.0 credit from each bin and at least 1.0 credit total at the D-level.

Bin 1: C- & D-level Ecology and Evolution Courses
Choose from:
BIOC51H3 Tropical Biodiversity Field Course
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC60H3 Winter Ecology
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology
(BIOC67H3) Inter-University Biology Field Course
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD52H3 Biodiversity and Conservation
BIOD54H3 Applied Conservation Biology
BIOD55H3 Experimental Animal Behaviour
BIOD59H3 Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation
BIOD60H3 Spatial Ecology
BIOD62H3 Symbiosis: Interactions Between Species
BIOD63H3 From Individuals to Ecosystems: Advanced Topics in Ecology
BIOD66H3 Causes and Consequences of Biodiversity
BIOD67H3 Inter-University Biology Field Course
EESC04H3 Biodiversity and Biogeography

Bin 2: C- & D-level Organismal Biology Courses
Choose from:
BIOC29H3 Introductory Mycology
BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC54H3 Animal Behaviour
BIOC59H3 Advanced Population Ecology
BIOC62H3 Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Conservation
BIOC70H3 An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology & Pathogenesis
BIOD34H3 Conservation Physiology
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOD43H3 Animal Movement and Exercise
BIOD45H3 Animal Communication
BIOD48H3 Ornithology
BIOD53H3 Special Topics in Animal Behaviour
EESC30H3 Environmental Microbiology
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.


B. Senior Research Courses (optional)
Students interested in graduate research are encouraged to take one or more of the independent research courses offered in Biological Sciences as part of their degree.
BIOD95H3 Supervised Study in Biology
BIOD98Y3 Directed Research in Biology
BIOD99Y3 Directed Research in Biology

SPECIALIST (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN CONSERVATION AND BIODIVERSITY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1150C

Academic Program Supervisor: biodiversity@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon, coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

This program presents a foundation for understanding how ecology and evolution shape organismal features (from morphology and physiology to behaviour), and the structure and function of communities and ecosystems. These processes determine the broad patterns of organization of life on earth and biodiversity, and the challenges to biodiversity are daunting: habitat destruction, biological invasions and climate change are causing loss of species and disruption of ecosystems worldwide. In this program, students are trained to understand and actively seek solutions to these problems. This program will also show how ecological and evolutionary perspectives can be used to understand and predict the outcome of dynamic interactions among organisms, populations, species, and communities, Graduates will be well trained to take on positions in government agencies, consulting firms or NGOs, to pursue careers in business or law related to environmental issues, stewardship and sustainable development, or to continue with graduate studies in science for academic careers.

The co-op option of the Conservation and Biodiversity program complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in the various governmental or non-governmental conservation agencies, in labs or in public or private industry. These work terms help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals. For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

Students apply to the Co-op Specialist Program in Conservation and Biodiversity after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.5.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree Program in their first year of study (i.e. Life Sciences Co-op) may request this Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN only after completion of 4.0 credits; in addition, students must meet the minimum enrolment requirements for entry as noted above for this program. Students must also submit a formal application to the department to be considered for the program. This includes a one-page statement for why they are suitable candidates to take the program. Short-listed students will be invited to an oral interview to determine interest and eligibility.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered. Students must also submit a formal application to the department to be considered for the program. This includes a one-page statement for why they are suitable candidates to take the program. Short-listed students will be invited to an oral interview to determine interest and eligibility.

The program requires students to complete a total of 14.5 credits.

A. Required Courses

First Year

1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Mathematics
Choose from:
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences and MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences] or
[MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences and MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 0.5 Credit in Physics
Choose from:
PHYA10H3 Physics I for the Physical Sciences
PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences

5. 0.5 Credit in Computer Science
Choose from:
CSCA08H3 Introduction to Computer Science I (most appropriate course for Computer Science students)
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming (most appropriate course for non-Computer Science students)

Second Year

6. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*

*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

7. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

8. 0.5 Credit in Statistics
Choose from:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology

Third Year

9. 2.5 Credits of C-level Ecology and Evolution Foundation Courses
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC50H3 Macroevolution
BIOC52H3 Field Ecology
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology and Environmental Biology
BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology

Third/Fourth Year

10. 4.0 credits of C- & D-level courses from Bins 1 and 2 below. This must include at least 1.0 credit from each bin and at least 1.0 credit total at the D-level.

Bin 1: C- & D-level Ecology and Evolution Courses
Choose from:
BIOC29H3 Introductory Mycology
BIOC51H3 Tropical Biodiversity Field Course
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC60H3 Winter Ecology
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD52H3 Biodiversity and Conservation
BIOD54H3 Applied Conservation Biology
BIOD55H3 Experimental Animal Behaviour
BIOD59H3 Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation
BIOD60H3 Spatial Ecology
BIOD62H3 Symbiosis: Interactions Between Species
BIOD63H3 From Individuals to Ecosystems: Advanced Topics in Ecology
BIOD66H3 Causes and Consequences of Biodiversity
BIOD67H3 Inter-University Biology Field Course
EESC04H3 Biodiversity and Biogeography

Bin 2: C- & D-level Organismal Biology Courses
Choose from:
BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC54H3 Animal Behaviour
BIOC59H3 Advanced Population Ecology
BIOC62H3 Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Conservation
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology & Pathogenesis
BIOD34H3 Conservation Physiology
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOD43H3 Animal Movement and Exercise
BIOD45H3 Animal Communication
BIOD48H3 Ornithology
BIOD53H3 Special Topics in Animal Behaviour
EESC30H3 Environmental Microbiology
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*

*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

B. Senior Research Courses (optional)
Students interested in graduate research are encouraged to take one or more of the independent research courses offered in Biological Sciences as part of their degree.
BIOD95H3 Supervised Study in Biology
BIOD98Y3 Directed Research in Biology
BIOD99Y3 Directed Research in Biology

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Specialist (Co-op) Program in Conservation and Biodiversity and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

SPECIALIST PROGRAM IN HUMAN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE0215

Supervisor Email: human-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca

The Specialist in Human Biology provides a solid foundation of introductory science courses and core biology courses while emphasizing, in the upper years, issues related to human health, the nature of humans and their culture as well as the interaction of the human species with the environment. The first year of the program emphasizes introductory courses in biology, chemistry, calculus, physics and psychology. The second year of the program emphasizes core courses in cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, evolution and anatomy that provide the basis for continued specialization in the third and fourth years. The upper years of the program emphasize specialized courses in anatomy, biochemistry, endocrinology, immunology, microbiology, physiology, psychology, pathology and pathobiology. This program is suited for those students who wish to go onto health-related fields such as medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy and health policy/management or graduate studies in these, and other, areas such as physiology, medicine and endocrinology.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Specialist Program in Human Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.0.
Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This Program consists of 15.0 credits.

Required Courses and Suggested Course Sequence


First Year
1. 1.0 credit in Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 credit in Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 credit in Mathematics
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences or MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences]
and
[MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences or MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 1.0 credit in Introductory Physics Courses
PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences
PHYA22H3 Physics II for the Life Sciences

5. 0.5 credit in Statistics
Choose From:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
6. 3.0 credits in Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

7. 1.0 credit in Biology Core Labs
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy Laboratory

8. 1.0 credit in Organic Chemistry Courses
CHMB41H3 Organic Chemistry I
CHMB42H3 Organic Chemistry II


Third/Fourth Years
9. 2.5 credits in C-level Biology Core Courses
Choose From:
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC32H3 Human Physiology I
BIOC34H3 Human Physiology II
BIOC39H3 Immunology

10. 1.5 credits in Additional C-level Biology Courses
Choose From:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins and Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC21H3 Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues
BIOC35H3 Principles of Parasitology
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology
BIOC70H3 An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

11. 1.0 credit in D-level Courses
Choose From:
BIOD06H3 Advanced Topics in Neural Basis of Motor Control
BIOD07H3 Advanced Topics and Methods in Neural Circuit Analysis
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD13H3 Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants
BIOD15H3 Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
BIOD17H3 Seminars in Cellular Microbiology
BIOD19H3 Epigenetics in Health and Disease
BIOD20H3 Special Topics in Virology
BIOD24H3 Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD27H3 Vertebrate Endocrinology
BIOD29H3 Pathobiology of Human Disease
BIOD32H3 Human Respiratory Pathophysiology
BIOD33H3 Comparative Animal Physiology
BIOD35H3 Sports Science
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOD43H3 Animal Movement and Exercise
BIOD59H3 Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation
BIOD65H3 Pathologies of the Nervous System
HLTD44H3 Environmental Contaminants, Vulnerability and Toxicity

12. 0.5 credit in Psychology or Health Studies
Choose From:
HLTA02H3 Foundations in Health Studies I
HLTA03H3 Foundations in Health Studies II
HLTB15H3 Introduction to Health Research Methodology
HLTB16H3 Introduction to Public Health
(HLTB17H3) Conceptual Models of Health
HLTB20H3 Contemporary Human Evolution and Variation
(HLTB21H3) Infectious Diseases
HLTB22H3 Biological Determinants of Health
HLTB40H3 Health Policy and Health Systems
PSYA01H3 Introduction to Biological and Cognitive Psychology
PSYA02H3 Introduction to Clinical, Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology

SPECIALIST (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN HUMAN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE0215C

Academic Program Supervisor: human-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Specialist in Human Biology provides a solid foundation of introductory science courses and core biology courses while emphasizing, in the upper years, issues related to human health, the nature of humans and their culture as well as the interaction of the human species with the environment. The first year of the program emphasizes introductory courses in biology, chemistry, calculus, physics and psychology. The second year of the program emphasizes core courses in cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, evolution and anatomy that provide the basis for continued specialization in the third and fourth years. The upper years of the program emphasize specialized courses in anatomy, biochemistry, endocrinology, immunology, microbiology, physiology, psychology, pathology and pathobiology. This program is suited for those students who wish to go onto health-related fields such as medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy and health policy/management or graduate studies in these, and other, areas such as physiology, medicine and endocrinology.

The Specialist (Co-op) in Human Biology complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in various governmental or non-governmental agencies, in labs or in public or private industry. These work terms help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals.

Students apply to the Specialist (Co-op) in Human Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.5.

Current Co-op Students:

Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Specialist in Human Biology.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Specialist (Co-op) in Human Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

SPECIALIST PROGRAM IN INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1030A

Supervisor Email: integrative-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca

The Integrative Biology program allows students to pursue a specialist program built on a broad, multi-perspective approach towards understanding biological complexity. This program provides students with a solid foundation in core biological areas (cellular and organismal biology, ecology and conservation, genes and development) and builds on this knowledge base in third and fourth years. A key advantage to this program is that it allows students to pursue specialization in more than one area at the same time, providing students with a broad understanding of biology. Many of the biggest issues facing today’s planet require scientists that are capable of bringing different and complementary perspectives to look for solutions, and this program provides the coursework and training to help undergraduates build this knowledge base. Students who are interested in careers in conservation biology, ecology, environmental sciences, cellular/organismal biology, as well as ones interested in careers in medicine and other health professions, will benefit from this program.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Specialist Program in Integrative Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.0.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 14.5 required credits.

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Mathematics
Choose from:
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences or MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences]
and
[MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences or MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 0.5 Credit in Physics
Choose from:
PHYA10H3 Physics I for the Physical Sciences
PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences

5. 0.5 Credit in Computer Science
Choose from:
CSCA08H3 Introduction to Computer Science I (most appropriate course for computer science students)
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming (most appropriate course for non-computer science students)


Second Year
6. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

7. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
Choose from:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy Laboratory
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

8. 0.5 Credit in Statistics
Choose from:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Third/Fourth Year
9. 2.5 Credits of Biology Foundation Courses
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
[BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge or BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology]
BIOC54H3 Animal Behaviour
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology

10. 1.0 Credit of Advanced Courses in Cellular and Organismal Biology
Choose from:
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins and Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC21H3 Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues
BIOC23H3 Practical Approaches to Biochemistry
BIOC29H3 Introductory Mycology
BIOC32H3 Human Physiology I
BIOC34H3 Human Physiology II
[BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge or BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology; whichever course is not used to fulfill Biology Foundation course requirement]
BIOC39H3 Immunology
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology
BIOC70H3 An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences
NROC34H3 Neuroethology

11. 1.0 Credit of Advanced Courses in Ecology and Conservation
Choose from:
BIOC50H3 Macroevolution
BIOC51H3 Tropical Biodiversity Field Course
BIOC52H3 Ecology Field Course
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC59H3 Advanced Population Ecology
BIOC60H3 Winter Ecology
BIOC62H3 Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Conservation
BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology
(BIOC67H3) Inter-University Biology Field Course
EESC04H3 Biodiversity and Biogeography

12. 1.0 Credit of Advanced Courses in Genes and Development
Choose from:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

13. 1.0 Credit of D-Level Biology Courses
Choose from:
Any BIO D-level course offered by the Biological Sciences department.

SPECIALIST (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1030M

Academic Program Supervisor Email: integrative-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Integrative Biology program allows students to pursue a specialist program built on a broad, multi-perspective approach towards understanding biological complexity. This program provides students with a solid foundation in core biological areas (cellular and organismal biology, ecology and conservation, genes and development) and builds on this knowledge base in third and fourth years. A key advantage to this program is that it allows students to pursue specialization in more than one area at the same time, providing students with a broad understanding of biology. Many of the biggest issues facing today’s planet require scientists that are capable of bringing different and complementary perspectives to look for solutions, and this program provides the coursework and training to help undergraduates build this knowledge base. Students who are interested in careers in conservation biology, ecology, environmental sciences, cellular/organismal biology, as well as ones interested in careers in medicine and other health professions, will benefit from this program.

Students apply to the Specialist (Co-op) in Integrative Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the Office of the Registrar for more information on program selection.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Specialist in Integrative Biology.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Specialist (Co-op) Program in Integrative Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

SPECIALIST PROGRAM IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1203

Supervisor Email: molecular-biology-biotechnology@utsc.utoronto.ca

The Molecular Biology and Biotechnology program strives to help students construct a broad foundation of knowledge across the major disciplines of biology in the first two years of study, and combines this knowledge with an increasingly analytical and reflective approach to learning. Upon this base, students deepen their knowledge of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level through the course work of their third and fourth years. This is a laboratory-rich program that integrates an understanding of chemical and physical processes with our complex biological systems. Because of broad training in biology and rigorous cross-training in cognate disciplines, graduates are well-positioned to apply to professional and graduate schools or work in a broad range of government regulatory agencies, clinical or research-focused industries and other careers that require the union of strong analytical and technical skills.
Note: This program was formerly known as the Specialist in Cell and Molecular Biology (BSc).

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Specialist Program in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.0.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 14.5 required credits.


First Year

1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Mathematics
Choose from:
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences or MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical
Sciences]
and
[MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences or MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 1.0 Credit in Physics
[PHYA10H3 Physics I for the Physical Sciences or PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences]
[PHYA21H3 Physics II for the Physical Sciences or PHYA22H3 Physics II for the Life Sciences]
and
0.5 Credit in Statistics
Choose from:
STAB22H3 Statistics I (this course could also be taken in the second year)
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology (this course could also be taken in the second year)

Second Year
5. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

6. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory

7. 1.0 Credit of Organic Chemistry Courses
CHMB41H3 Organic Chemistry I
CHMB42H3 Organic Chemistry II

Third Year
8. 3.5 Credits of Biology C-level Courses
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins & Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC23H3 Practical Approaches to Biochemistry
BIOC39H3 Immunology (can be completed in third or fourth year)

9. 0.5 Credit in Computer Science
Choose from:
CSCA08H3 Introduction to Computer Science I (most appropriate course for computer science students)
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming (most appropriate course for non-computer science students)
(computer science could also be taken in an earlier year)

Third/Fourth Year
10. 0.5 Credit of Cognate Biology Courses
Choose from:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC21H3 Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC35H3 Principles of Parasitology
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC70H3 An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

Fourth Year
11. 0.5 Credit in Advanced Molecular Techniques
BIOD21H3 Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory

12. 0.5 credit of D-level Research-oriented "Cell & Molecular" Course Work
Choose from:
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD13H3 Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants
BIOD15H3 Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
BIOD17H3 Seminars in Cellular Microbiology
BIOD19H3 Epigenetics in Health and Disease
BIOD20H3 Special Topics in Virology
BIOD22H3 Molecular Biology of the Stress Response
BIOD23H3 Special Topics in Cell Biology
BIOD24H3 Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD27H3 Vertebrate Endocrinology
BIOD29H3 Pathobiology of Human Disease
BIOD30H3 Plant Research and Biotechnology: Addressing Global Problems
BIOD95H3 Supervised Study in Biology
BIOD98Y3 Directed Research in Biology
Note: Any of these courses not used to satisfy this requirement may be used to fulfill the '0.5 Credit of Cognate Biology Courses'.

SPECIALIST (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCSPE1203C

Academic Program Supervisor/Advisor: molecular-biology-biotechnology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Molecular Biology and Biotechnology program strives to help students construct a broad foundation of knowledge across the major disciplines of biology in the first two years of study, and combine this knowledge with an increasingly analytical and reflective approach to learning. Upon this base, students deepen their knowledge of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level through course work of their third and fourth years. This is a laboratory-rich program that integrates an understanding of chemical and physical processes with our complex biological systems. Because of broad training in biology and rigorous cross-training in cognate disciplines, graduates are well-positioned to apply to professional and graduate schools or work in a broad range of government regulatory agencies, clinical or research-focused industries and other careers that require the union of strong analytical and technical skills.

The co-op option of the Molecular Biology and Biotechnology program complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in research laboratories, government, health care, or in public or private industry. These work terms help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals. For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

Note: This program was formerly known as the Specialist Co-operative in Cell and Molecular Biology (BSc).

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Specialist Program in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics and with a minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.5

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Program Requirements
The program requires students to complete a total of 14.5 credits.


First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Mathematics
Choose from:
[MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences or MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences]
and
[MATA35H3 Calculus II for Biological Sciences or MATA36H3 Calculus II for Physical Sciences]

4. 1.0 Credit in Physics
[PHYA10H3 Physics I for the Physical Sciences or PHYA11H3 Physics I for the Life Sciences]
[PHYA21H3 Physics II for the Physical Sciences or PHYA22H3 Physics II for the Life Sciences]

5. 0.5 Credit in Statistics
Choose from:
STAB22H3 Statistics I (this course could also be taken in the second year)
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology (this course could also be taken in the second year)


Second Year
6. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology
BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

7. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory

8. 1.0 Credit of Organic Chemistry Courses
CHMB41H3 Organic Chemistry I
CHMB42H3 Organic Chemistry II

Note: Computer Science might be taken in this year and will enhance Co-op placement options.


Third Year
9. 3.5 Credits of Biology C-level Courses
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins and Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC23H3 Practical Approaches to Biochemistry
BIOC39H3 Immunology (can be completed in third or fourth year)

10. 0.5 Credit in Computer Science
Choose from:
CSCA08H3 Introduction to Computer Science I (most appropriate course for computer science students)
CSCA20H3 Introduction to Programming (most appropriate course for non-computer science students)


Third/Fourth Year
11. 0.5 Credit of Cognate Biology Courses
Choose from:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC21H3 Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC35H3 Principles of Parasitology
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC70H3 An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.


Fourth Year
12. 0.5 Credit in Advanced Molecular Techniques
BIOD21H3 Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory

13. 0.5 Credit of D-level Research-Oriented "Cell & Molecular" Course Work
Choose from:
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD13H3 Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants
BIOD15H3 Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
BIOD17H3 Seminars in Cellular Microbiology
BIOD19H3 Epigenetics in Health and Disease
BIOD20H3 Special Topics in Virology
BIOD22H3 Molecular Biology of the Stress Response
BIOD23H3 Special Topics in Cell Biology
BIOD24H3 Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD27H3 Vertebrate Endocrinology
BIOD29H3 Pathobiology of Human Disease
BIOD30H3 Plant Research and Biotechnology: Addressing Global Problems
BIOD95H3 Supervised Study in Biology
BIOD98Y3 Directed Research in Biology
Note: Any of these courses not used to satisfy this requirement can be used to fulfill the '0.5 credit of Cognate Biology Courses.'

Co-op Work Term Requirements

Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Specialist (Co-op) Program in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3. Completion of BIOB10H3, BIOB11H3, BIOB12H3, CHMB41H3 and CHMB42H3 are strongly recommended prior to second work term.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1030B

Supervisor Email: biology-major@utsc.utoronto.ca

Biology is the study of life and this major program in Biology is meant to provide students with a solid basic knowledge of this vast discipline, while also allowing the student to tailor their program in the upper years toward one or more biological sub-disciplines. Many of the world's most important and timely issues (medical science and disease, conservation and biodiversity, food and energy supplies) are issues that require citizens to have a firm understanding of biological principles and practices.
The Major program in Biology (Science) cannot be combined with any other Major program offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 full credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.
Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 8.0 required credits.


First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 0.5 Credit in Mathematics or Statistics
Choose from:
MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences
MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
4. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

5. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs

Choose from:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy Laboratory
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory


Third Year
6. 1.5 Credits of Additional C-level Biology Courses
Choose from: Any BIO C-level courses offered by the department.
Note: NROC34H3 (Neuroethology) may also be used toward fulfilling this requirement.

BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

Fourth Year
7. 0.5 Credit of Additional D-Level Biology Courses
Choose from: Any BIO D-level courses offered by the department. Note: that this includes the Biology Supervised Studies and Directed Research courses (BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 and BIOD99Y3).

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1030M

Academic Program Supervisor: R. Sturge
Email: biology-major@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Major (Co-op) in Biology program complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in various governmental or non-governmental agencies, in labs or in public or private industry. These work terms help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals. For information on admissions, fees, work terms and standing in the Program, please see section 6B.5 (Co-operative Programs) or the Arts and Science Co-op section in this Calendar.

The minimum qualifications for entry are 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major in Biology.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) in Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN CONSERVATION AND BIODIVERSITY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1150

Program Supervisor E-mail: biodiversity@utsc.utoronto.ca

This program provides background and training in modern biological approaches to the study of biodiversity, ecology, and evolution. The links between these fields are emphasized, and topics covered range from the structure and function of ecosystems to the evolution of behaviour, morphology, and physiology.
Note: This program was formerly known as the Major in Biodiversity, Ecology & Evolution (BSc).

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Conservation and Biodiversity after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 8.5 required credits.


First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 0.5 Credit in Mathematics or Statistics
Choose from:
MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences
MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
4. 3.0 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

5. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory


Third Year
6. 1.0 Credit of Ecology & Evolution Foundation Courses
Choose from:
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC50H3 Macroevolution
BIOC52H3 Field Ecology
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology and Environmental Biology
BIOC63H3 Conservation Biology

7. 1.0 Credit of Other C-level Courses
Choose from:
BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology
BIOC51H3 Tropical Biodiversity Field Course
BIOC54H3 Animal Behaviour
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC59H3 Advanced Population Ecology
BIOC60H3 Winter Ecology
BIOC62H3 Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Conservation
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology
(BIOC67H3) Inter-University Biology Field Course
EESC04H3 Biodiversity and Biogeography
EESC30H3 Environmental Microbiology

BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.


Fourth Year
8. 0.5 Credit of D-level Courses
Choose from:
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology & Pathogenesis
BIOD34H3 Conservation Physiology
BIOD43H3 Animal Movement and Exercise
BIOD45H3 Animal Communication
BIOD48H3 Ornithology
BIOD52H3 Biodiversity and Conservation
BIOD53H3 Special Topics in Animal Behaviour
BIOD54H3 Applied Conservation Biology
BIOD55H3 Experimental Animal Behaviour
BIOD59H3 Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation
BIOD60H3 Spatial Ecology
BIOD62H3 Symbiosis: Interactions Between Species
BIOD63H3 From Individuals to Ecosystems: Advanced Topics in Ecology
BIOD66H3 Causes & Consequences of Biodiversity
BIOD67H3 Inter-University Biology Field Course
EESD15H3 Fundamentals of Site Remediation

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN CONSERVATION AND BIODIVERSITY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1150C

Academic Program Supervisor: R. Sturge
Email: biodiversity@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

This program provides background and training in modern biological approaches to the study of biodiversity, ecology, and evolution. The links between these fields are emphasized, and topics covered range from the structure and function of ecosystems to the evolution of behaviour, morphology, and physiology.

The Co-op option of the Conservation and Biodiversity program complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in the various governmental or non-governmental conservation agencies, in labs or in public or private industry. These placements help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals. For information on admissions, fees, work terms and standing in the Program, please see section 6B.5 (Co-operative Programs) or the Arts and Science Co-op section in this Calendar.

Students apply to the Major (Co-operative) Program in Conservation and Biodiversity after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of at least 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major Program in Conservation and Biodiversity.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) Program in Plant Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN HUMAN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ0215

Supervisor Email: human-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca

The Major in Human Biology provides training and background in general biology with the opportunity to concentrate on courses in upper years that are related to human health. Upper year courses are available in physiology, cell and molecular biology, anatomy, microbiology, pathology, endocrinology, anthropology, psychology and biochemistry. This program is suitable for students with an interest in applied biology in health sciences or in social sciences related to human health.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Human Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements:
This program consists of 8.5 credits.

Required Courses and Suggested Course Sequence

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit in Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 1.0 Credit in Introductory Psychology Courses
PSYA01H3 Introduction to Biological and Cognitive Psychology
PSYA02H3 Introduction to Clinical, Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology

4. 0.5 Credit in Mathematics or Statistics
Choose From:
MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences
MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
5. 2.5 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

6. 0.5 Credit in a Biology Core Lab
Choose From:
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy


Third/Fourth Years
7. 1.5 Credits of C-Level Courses
Choose From:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC16H3 Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC21H3 Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues
BIOC32H3 Human Physiology I
BIOC34H3 Human Physiology II
BIOC35H3 Principles of Parasitology
BIOC39H3 Immunology
BIOC54H3 Animal Behaviour
BIOC58H3 Biological Consequences of Global Change
BIOC65H3 Environmental Toxicology

BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

8. 0.5 Credit of D-Level Courses
Choose From:
BIOD06H3 Advanced Topics in Neural Basis of Motor Control
BIOD07H3 Advanced Topics and Methods in Neural Circuit Analysis
BIOD08H3 Theoretical Neuroscience
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD15H3 Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
BIOD17H3 Seminars in Cellular Microbiology
BIOD19H3 Epigenetics in Health and Disease
BIOD20H3 Special Topics in Virology
BIOD24H3 Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD27H3 Vertebrate Endocrinology
BIOD29H3 Pathobiology of Human Disease
BIOD32H3 Human Respiratory Pathophysiology
BIOD33H3 Comparative Animal Physiology
BIOD35H3 Sports Science
BIOD43H3 Animal Movement and Exercise
BIOD59H3 Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation
BIOD65H3 Pathologies of the Nervous System
BIOD95H3 Supervised Study in Biology (topic must be human-related and approved by the program supervisor)
HLTD44H3 Environmental Contaminants, Vulnerability and Toxicity

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN HUMAN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ0215C

Academic Program Supervisor: S.G. Reid
Email: human-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Major in Human Biology provides training and background in general biology with the opportunity to concentrate on courses in upper years that are related to human health. Upper year courses are available in physiology, cell and molecular biology, anatomy, microbiology, pathology, endocrinology, anthropology, psychology and biochemistry. This program is suitable for students with an interest in applied biology in health sciences or in social sciences related to human health.

The Major (Co-op) in Human Biology program complements and punctuates academic course work with full-time work terms in various governmental or non-governmental agencies, in labs or in public or private industry. These work terms help students define and refine their career and/or professional school goals.

Students apply to the Major (Co-op) in Human Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major in Human Biology.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) Program in Human Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND DISEASE (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ0220

Supervisor Email: molecular-biology-immunology@utsc.utoronto.ca

This program provides training and background in general biology with the opportunity to concentrate on courses in upper years that are related to immunology, infection and disease. Upper year courses are available in microbiology, immunology, biochemistry and pathobiology of disease. This program is suitable for students with an interest in molecular biology and disease.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted on the basis of academic performance.
Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
This program consists of 8.5 credits.

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 0.5 Credit in Mathematics or Statistics
Choose from:
MATA29H3 Calculus I for the Life Sciences
MATA30H3 Calculus I for Physical Sciences
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
4. 2.5 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB34H3 Animal Physiology
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

5. 0.5 Credit in a Biology Core Lab
Choose From:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB32H3 Animal Physiology Laboratory
BIOB33H3 Human Development and Anatomy


Third/Fourth Years
6. 1.5 Credit of Required C-level Courses
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC20H3 Principles of Virology
BIOC39H3 Immunology

7. 1.0 Credit of Additional C-level Courses
Choose from:
BIOC10H3 Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins & Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC14H3 Genes, Environment and Behaviour
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC19H3 Animal Developmental Biology
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC35H3 Principles of Parasitology

BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

8. 0.5 credit of D-level Biology Courses
Choose from:
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD13H3 Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants
BIOD15H3 Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
BIOD17H3 Seminars in Cellular Microbiology
BIOD19H3 Epigenetics in Health and Disease
BIOD20H3 Special Topics in Virology
BIOD23H3 Special Topics in Cell Biology
BIOD24H3 Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
BIOD25H3 Genomics
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD27H3 Vertebrate Endocrinology
BIOD29H3 Pathobiology of Human Disease

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND DISEASE (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ0220C

Supervisor Email: molecular-biology-immunology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

This program provides training and background in general biology with the opportunity to concentrate on courses in upper years that are related to immunology, infection and disease. Upper year courses are available in microbiology, immunology, biochemistry and pathobiology of disease. This program is suitable for students with an interest in molecular biology and disease.

Students apply to the Major (Co-op) in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the Office of the Registrar for more information on program selection.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) in Molecular Biology, Immunology and Disease and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN PLANT BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1060

Supervisor Email: plant-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca

The Major Program in Plant Biology provides a broad education in all areas of contemporary biology and affords students an opportunity to concentrate on Plant Biology courses in upper years. This program is suitable for students with an interest in biochemistry, biotechnology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, physiology, and/or development of plants.

Enrolment Requirements
Students apply to the Major Program in Plant Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. Students are admitted based on academic performance.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the UTSC Office of the Registrar's website for more information on program selection.

Program Requirements
Students are required to complete a total of 8.5 credits.

Required Courses and Suggested Course Sequence:

First Year
1. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Biology Courses
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 1.0 Credit of Introductory Chemistry Courses
CHMA10H3 Introductory Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding
[CHMA11H3 Introductory Chemistry II: Reactions and Mechanisms or CHMA12H3 Advanced General Chemistry]

3. 0.5 Credit of Statistics Courses
Choose From:
STAB22H3 Statistics I
PSYB07H3 Data Analysis in Psychology


Second Year
4. 2.5 Credits of Biology Core Courses
BIOB10H3 Cell Biology
BIOB11H3 Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes
BIOB38H3 Plants and Society
BIOB50H3 Ecology
BIOB51H3 Evolutionary Biology

BIOB90H3 Integrative Research Poster Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOB90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in at least one of the BIO B-level courses listed above is required for enrolment in BIOB90H3. Please see BIOB90H3 in the Calendar for important information.

5. 0.5 Credit of Biology Core Labs
Choose From:
BIOB12H3 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOB52H3 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory


Third Year
6. 1.5 Credits of C-level Plant Courses
BIOC31H3 Plant Development and Biotechnology
BIOC37H3 Plants: Life on the Edge
BIOC40H3 Plant Physiology


Third/ Fourth Year
7. 1.0 Credit of Additional C-level Courses
Choose From:
BIOC12H3 Biochemistry I: Proteins and Enzymes
BIOC13H3 Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BIOC15H3 Genetics
BIOC17H3 Microbiology
BIOC35H3 Principles in Parasitology
BIOC50H3 Macroevolution
BIOC52H3 Field Ecology
BIOC61H3 Community Ecology and Environmental Biology

BIOC90H3 Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project (CR/NCR 0.0 credit)*
*Note: Completion of BIOC90H3 is a graduation requirement for students in this program. Concurrent enrolment in one of the participating BIO C-level courses is required for enrolment in BIOC90H3. Please see BIOC90H3 in the Calendar for important information.


Fourth Year
8. 0.5 Credit of D-level Biology Courses
Choose From:
BIOD12H3 Protein Homeostasis
BIOD13H3 Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants
BIOD21H3 Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory
BIOD26H3 Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis
BIOD30H3 Plant Research and Biotechnology: Addressing Global Problems
BIOD37H3 Biology of Plant Stress
BIOD62H3 Symbiosis: Interactions Between Species

Note: Students who are interested in research or graduate studies can choose to take BIOC99H3, BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 or BIOD99Y3 supervised study courses with faculty to obtain additional research experience and training in plant biology.

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN PLANT BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMAJ1060C

Academic Program Supervisor: J. Brown
Email: plant-biology@utsc.utoronto.ca
Co-op Program Coordinator: C. Dixon
Email: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Major Program in Plant Biology provides a broad education in all areas of contemporary biology and affords students an opportunity to concentrate on Plant Biology courses in upper years. This program is suitable for students with an interest in biochemistry, biotechnology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, physiology, and/or development of plants.

Students apply to the Major (Co-op) Program in Plant Biology after completing a minimum of 4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit in Biology (excluding BIOA11H3), 1.0 credit in Chemistry, and 0.5 credit in Mathematics (excluding MATA02H3) or Statistics. A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher is required for admission.

Application for admission is made to the Office of the Registrar through ACORN, in April/May and July/August. See the Office of the Registrar for more information on program selection.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above for this program.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major Program in Plant Biology.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete Co-op work term(s) as follows: three 4-month work terms, one 4-month work term and one 8-month work term, or one 12-month work term. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) Program in Plant Biology and have completed at least 7.0 credits, achieve a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher, and complete COPB50H3 and COPB51H3.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

Co-op Course Requirements
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete the following Co-op specific courses as part of their degree:

  • Co-op Preparation courses: COPB50H3 and COPB51H3 (completed in first year)
  • Work Term Search courses: COPB52H3 (semester prior to first work term), COPC98H3 (semester prior to second work term), and COPC99H3 (semester prior to third work term)
  • Co-op Work Term courses: COPC30H3 (each semester a student is on work term)

These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They must be completed in sequence, and fall into three categories: Co-op Preparation courses (COPB50H3 & COPB51H3) are completed in first year, and cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure a work term; Work Term Search Courses (COPB52H3, COPC98H3, & COPC99H3) are completed in the semester prior to each work term, and support students while competing for work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, as well as preparing students for the transition into and how to succeed the workplace; Co-op Work Term courses (COPC30H3) are completed during each semester that a student is on work term, and support students’ success while on work term, as well as connecting their academics and the workplace experience.

Co-op courses are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MINOR PROGRAM IN BIOLOGY (SCIENCE) - SCMIN1030A

Supervisor Email: biology-minor@utsc.utoronto.ca

Enrolment in the Minor in Biology is unlimited. The Minor in Biology cannot be combined with any Major or Specialist programs offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

Program Requirements
Students are required to complete a total of 4.0 credits.

1. 1.0 credit of Introductory Biology courses:
BIOA01H3 Life on Earth: Unifying Principles
BIOA02H3 Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

2. 3.0 credits in Biology*, of which at least 1.0 credit must be at the C- or D-level.
**NROC34H3 may be used toward fulfilling this requirement.
**BIOA11H3 may not be used towards fulfilling this requirement.

CERTIFICATE IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH EXCELLENCE - SCCER1020

The Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence will recognize students' research accomplishments in experiential, research-based learning experiences throughout their undergraduate programs.
Note: Courses for which students have selected the CR/NCR option cannot be used towards the completion of this Certificate. However, courses that are graded as CR/NCR courses for all students (e.g., BIOB98H3 and BIOB99H3), can be used towards the completion of this Certificate.

Enrolment Requirements

Students must be enrolled in any Major or Specialist program offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

Certificate Requirements

Students must complete a minimum of 1.5 credits as follows:

1. BIOD98Y3*
and any one of the following:
BIOB98H3
BIOB99H3
BIOC99H3*
BIOD99Y3*
*Note: students must earn a grade of A- or higher in these courses in order to be eligible for the Certificate.

2. All students must engage in at least one consultation with the liaison librarian for the Department of Biological Sciences in order to develop their skills in literature mining and using an evidence-based approach to study design and data analysis.

3. Upon completion of the specified courses in component 1 of the Requirements, students must provide an overall summary of their research accomplishments to the Department in order to receive the Certificate.

 

Biological Sciences Courses

BIOA01H3 - Life on Earth: Unifying Principles

A lecture and laboratory course providing an overview of the origins and cellular basis of life, genetics and molecular biology, evolution and the diversity of microorganisms. Note: that both BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3 must be completed prior to taking any other Biology course.

Prerequisite: [Grade 12 Biology or BIOA11H3] and [Grade 12 Advanced Functions or Grade 12 Calculus and Vectors or Grade 12 Data Management or the Online Mathematics Preparedness Course]
Exclusion: BIO120H, BIO130H, (BIO150Y)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOA02H3 - Life on Earth: Form, Function and Interactions

A lecture and laboratory course providing an overview of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, population biology, ecology and biodiversity. Note: that both BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3 must be completed prior to taking any other Biology course.

Prerequisite: [Grade 12 Biology or BIOA11H3] and [Grade 12 Advanced Functions or Grade 12 Calculus and Vectors or Grade 12 Data Management or the Online Mathematics Preparedness Course]
Exclusion: BIO120H, BIO130H, (BIO150Y)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOA11H3 - Introduction to the Biology of Humans

An exploration of how molecules and cells come together to build and regulate human organ systems. The course provides a foundation for understanding genetic principles and human disease, and applications of biology to societal needs. This course is intended for non-biology students.

Exclusion: BIOA01H3, BIOA02H3, CSB201H1
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Note: (1) Priority will be given to students in the Major/Major Co-op in Health Studies - Population Health. Students across all disciplines will be admitted if space permits. (2) Students who have passed BIOA11H3 will be permitted to take BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3.

BIOB10H3 - Cell Biology

This course is designed to introduce theory and experimental techniques in cell biology. The course examines the structure and function of major animal and plant organelles and integrates this into a discussion of protein biosynthesis, signal-based sorting and intracellular trafficking using the cytoskeleton. Cell motility and cell interactions with the environment will also be examined to provide a solid foundation on the basic unit of life.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3 and CHMA10H3 and CHMA11H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB11H3 - Molecular Aspects of Cellular and Genetic Processes

A course focusing on the central dogma of genetics and how molecular techniques are used to investigate cellular processes. Topics include structure and function of the nucleus, DNA replication and cell cycle control, transcription and translation, gene regulation and signal transduction.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3 and CHMA10H3 and CHMA11H3
Exclusion: BIO230H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB12H3 - Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory

A practical introduction to experimentation in cell and molecular biology. Lab modules will introduce students to concepts and techniques in the general preparation of solutions and buffers, microbiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, microscopy, data analysis, and science communication. This core laboratory course is the gateway for Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Specialists to upper level laboratory offerings.

Prerequisite: CHMA10H3 and CHMA11H3
Corequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience
Note: Priority will be given to students enrolled in the Specialist programs in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Co-op and non-Co-op), Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, Neuroscience (Stage 1, Co-op only), Neuroscience (Cellular/Molecular Stream), and the Major program in Biochemistry. Additional students will be admitted as space permits.

BIOB20H3 - Introduction to Computational Biology

This course explains the fundamental methods of quantitative reasoning, with applications in medicine, natural sciences, ecology and evolutionary biology. It covers the major aspects of statistics by working through concrete biological problems. The course will help students develop an understanding of key concepts through computer simulations, problem solving and interactive data visualisation using the R programming language (no prior skills with R or specialized math concepts are required).

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3
Exclusion: BIO259H5
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

BIOB32H3 - Animal Physiology Laboratory

This course examines physiological mechanisms that control and co-ordinate the function of various systems within the body. The laboratory exercises examine properties of digestive enzymes, characteristics of blood, kidney function, metabolic rate and energetics, nerve function and action potentials, synaptic transmission, skeletal muscle function and mechanoreception.

Corequisite: (BIOB30H3) or BIOB34H3
Exclusion: BIO252Y, BIO270H, BIO271H, (ZOO252Y)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOB33H3 - Human Development and Anatomy

A lecture based course with online learning modules which deals with the functional morphology of the human organism. The subject matter extends from early embryo-genesis through puberty to late adult life.

Prerequisite: [BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3] or [HLTA03H3 and HLTA20H3]
Exclusion: ANA300Y, ANA301H, HLTB33H3, PMDB33H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Note: Priority will be given to students in the Human Biology programs. Additional students will be admitted as space permits.

BIOB34H3 - Animal Physiology

An introduction to the principles of animal physiology rooted in energy usage and cellular physiology. A comparative approach is taken, which identifies both the universal and unique mechanisms present across the animal kingdom. Metabolism, thermoregulation, digestion, respiration, water regulation, nitrogen excretion, and neural circuits are the areas of principal focus.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3 and CHMA11H3
Exclusion: BIO270H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB35H3 - Essentials of Human Physiology

An exploration of the normal physiology of the human body. Emphasis will be placed on organ systems associated with head and neck, especially nervous, respiratory, muscular, digestive, cardiovascular, and endocrine. Particular emphasis will be placed on speech, audition, and swallowing. The interrelationship among organ systems and how they serve to maintain homeostasis and human health will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 or BIOA11H3
Exclusion: BIOC32H3, BIOC34H3, BIO210Y5, PSL201Y1
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Note: Priority will be given to students in the Specialist Program in Psycholinguistics (Co-op and Non co-op). Additional students will be admitted if space permits.

BIOB38H3 - Plants and Society

How do plants feed the world and which plants have the highest impact on human lives? What is the origin of agriculture and how did it change over time? The human population will climb to 10 billion in 2050 and this will tax our planet’s ability to sustain life. Environmentally sustainable food production will become even more integral.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3
Exclusion: (BIOC38H3), EEB202H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB50H3 - Ecology

An introduction to the main principles of ecology; the science of the interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment. Topics include physiological, behavioural, population, community, and applied aspects of ecology (e.g. disease ecology, climate change impacts, and approaches to conservation). Emphasis is given to understanding the connections between ecology and other biological subdisciplines.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB51H3 - Evolutionary Biology

This course is an introduction to the main principles of evolution; the study of the diversity, relationships, and change over time in organisms at all scales of organization (from individuals to populations to higher taxonomic groups). The theory and principles of evolutionary biology give critical insight into a wide range of fields, including conservation, genetics, medicine, pathogenesis, community ecology, and development.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOB52H3 - Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory

An introduction to field, lab and computational approaches to ecology and evolution. Laboratories will explore a variety of topics, ranging from population genetics to community ecology and biodiversity. Some lab exercises will involve outdoor field work.

Prerequisite: BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3
Corequisite: BIOB50H3 or BIOB51H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOB90H3 - Integrative Research Poster Project

In this course, students will develop scientific communication skills by working collaboratively with peers to create an informative scientific poster that will be presented in a poster session modelled on those held at most major scientific conferences. Successful posters will engage the interest of the audience in the topic, clearly and concisely outline understanding gained from the primary literature, and discuss how understanding is enhanced by integrating knowledge.

Notes:
1. Students in all Specialist/Specialist Co-op and Major programs in Biological Sciences are required to complete BIOB90H3 prior to graduation. In order to enroll in BIOB90H3, students must be concurrently enroled in at least one of the corequisites listed.
2. No specific grade will be assigned to BIOB90H3 on transcripts; instead, the grade assigned to work in BIOB90H3 will constitute 10% of the final grade in each of the corequisite courses that the students are concurrently enrolled in.

3. Students must receive a grade of 50% or higher for work in BIOB90H3 in order to fulfill this graduation requirement.

Prerequisite: Restricted to students in the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs and Major Programs in Biological Sciences.
Corequisite: Concurrently enrolled in at least one of the following: BIOB10H3, BIOB11H3, BIOB34H3, BIOB38H3, BIOB50H3 or BIOB51H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOB97H3 - Bio-CURE: Course-based Undergraduate Research in Biological Sciences

This course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) in biological sciences will introduce students to the process of scientific inquiry as they engage in a hypothesis-driven research project with an emphasis on student-driven discovery, critical thinking, and collaboration. Students will learn to effectively access, interpret, and reference scientific literature as they formulate their research question and create an experimental design. Students will gain hands-on experience in research techniques and apply concepts in research ethics, reproducibility, and quantitative analyses to collect and interpret data.

Corequisite: BIOB11H3 and at least one of BIOB10H3, BIOB34H3, BIOB38H3,BIOB50H3, BIOB51H3
Exclusion: None
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience
Note: Have completed no more than 11 credits towards a degree program at the time of enrolment.

BIOB98H3 - Supervised Introductory Research in Biology

A course designed to facilitate the introduction to, and experience in, ongoing laboratory or field research in biology. Supervision of the work is arranged by mutual agreement between student and instructor.
Students must obtain a permission form (and outline of the planned work) from the Biological Sciences website. This is to be completed and signed by the student and supervisor and then returned to the Biological Sciences departmental office (SW421E).

Notes:
1. Completion of this course can be used to fulfill a course requirement for the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence. Details can be found in the Biological Sciences Overview section of the Calendar.
2. This course does not satisfy any Biological Sciences program requirements.
3. This course is a credit/no credit course.

Prerequisite: At least 4.0 credits including BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3.
Exclusion: BIOB98H3 may not be taken after or concurrently with: BIOB99H3, BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 or BIOD99Y3
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOB99H3 - Supervised Introductory Research in Biology

A course designed to facilitate the introduction to, and experience in, ongoing laboratory or field research in biology. Supervision of the work is arranged by mutual agreement between student and instructor.
Students must obtain a permission form (and outline of the planned work) from the Biological Sciences website. This is to be completed and signed by the student and supervisor and then returned to the Biological Sciences departmental office (SW421E).

Notes:
1. BIOB99H3 is identical to BIOB98H3 but is intended as a second research experience. In order to be eligible for BIOB99H3, with the same instructor, the student and the instructor will have to provide a plan of study, the scope of which goes beyond the work of BIOB98H3.
2. Completion of this course can be used to fulfill a course requirement for the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence. Details can be found in the Biological Sciences Overview section of the Calendar.
3. This course does not satisfy any Biological Sciences program requirements.

Prerequisite: BIOB98H3
Exclusion: BIOB99H3 may not be taken after or concurrently with BIOD95H3, BIOD98Y3 or BIOD99Y3.
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC10H3 - Cell Biology: Proteins from Life to Death

This seminar course builds on fundamental cell biology concepts using primary literature. This course will examine specific organelles and their functions in protein biogenesis, modification, trafficking, and quality control within eukaryotic cells. The experimental basis of knowledge will be emphasized and students will be introduced to hypothesis-driven research in cell biology.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: BIO315H, CSB428H
Recommended Preparation: BIOC12H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC12H3 - Biochemistry I: Proteins and Enzymes

A lecture course describing factors involved in determining protein structures and the relationship between protein structure and function. Topics include: amino acids; the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins; protein motifs and protein domains; glycoproteins; membrane proteins; classical enzyme kinetics and allosteric enzymes; mechanisms of enzyme action.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3 and CHMB41H3
Exclusion: CHMB62H3, BCH210H, BCH242Y
Recommended Preparation: CHMB42H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC13H3 - Biochemistry II: Bioenergetics and Metabolism

A lecture course that introduces how cells or organisms extract energy from their environment. The major metabolic pathways to extract energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins will be discussed, as well as the regulation and integration of different pathways. An emphasis will be placed on real-world applications of biochemistry to metabolism.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3 and CHMB41H3
Exclusion: CHMB62H3, BCH210H, BCH242Y
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC14H3 - Genes, Environment and Behaviour

This class will provide a survey of the role of genes in behaviour, either indirectly as structural elements or as direct participants in behaviour. Topics to be covered are methods to investigate complex behaviours in humans and animal models of human disease, specific examples of genetic effects on behaviour in animals and humans, and studies of gene-environment interactions.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC15H3 - Genetics

Topics for this lecture and laboratory (or project) course include: inheritance and its chromosomal basis; gene interactions; sources and types of mutations and the relationship of mutation to genetic disease and evolution; genetic dissection of biological processes; genetic technologies and genomic approaches.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3 and [PSYB07H3 or STAB22H3]
Exclusion: BIO260H, HMB265H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC16H3 - Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics

Understanding the process of evolution is greatly enhanced by investigations of the underlying genes. This course introduces modern genetic and genomic techniques used to understand and assess microevolutionary changes at the population level. Topics include DNA sequence evolution, population genetics, quantitative genetics/genomics, positive Darwinian selection, the evolution of new genes, and comparative genomics.

Prerequisite: BIOB51H3
Recommended Preparation: BIOC15H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC17H3 - Microbiology

This course presents an overview of the microbial world and introduces the students, in more detail, to the physiological, cellular and molecular aspects of bacteria. The laboratories illustrate principles and provide training in basic microbiological techniques essential to microbiology and to any field where recombinant DNA technology is used.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: MGY377H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC19H3 - Animal Developmental Biology

Following a discussion of cellular and molecular events in early embryonic life, the development of several model systems will be analyzed such as erythropoiesis, lens development in the eye, spermatogenesis and myogenesis. Particular reference will be given to the concept that regulation of gene expression is fundamental to development.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: CSB328H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC20H3 - Principles of Virology

This course introduces viruses as infectious agents. Topics include: virus structure and classification among all kingdoms, viral replication strategies, the interactions of viruses with host cells, and how viruses cause disease. Particular emphasis will be on human host-pathogen interactions, with select lectures on antiviral agents, resistance mechanisms, and vaccines.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: BIO475H5, CSB351Y1, MGY378H1
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC21H3 - Vertebrate Histology: Cells and Tissues

A study of the structure of cells and the various tissue types which make up the vertebrate body; epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous, blood, and lymphatic. Emphasis is placed on how form is influenced by function of the cells and tissues.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB34H3
Exclusion: ANA300Y
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC23H3 - Practical Approaches to Biochemistry

A lecture and laboratory course that introduces students to experimental approaches used in biochemical research. Topics include practical and theoretical aspects of: spectrophotometry; chromatography; electrophoresis; enzyme assays, protein purification and approaches to identify protein-protein interactions. Students are expected to solve numerical problems involving these and related procedures.

Prerequisite: BIOB12H3 and BIOC12H3
Exclusion: BCH370H, (BCH371H), BCH377H, BCH378H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC29H3 - Introductory Mycology

This course will lead students through an exploration of the Kingdom of Fungi, covering topics in biodiversity, ecology, and evolution. Lectures will also discuss the broad application of fungi in agriculture, industry, medicine, and visual arts. In the laboratory sessions, students will learn to observe, isolate, and identify fungi using microscopy and modern biological techniques. Field trips will be opportunities to observe fungi in their native habitats and to discuss the real-world applications of diverse fungal organisms.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC31H3 - Plant Development and Biotechnology

A central question of developmental biology is how a single cell becomes a complex organism. This lecture course focuses on molecular and cellular mechanisms that control developmental processes in plants, including: embryonic, vegetative and reproductive development; hormone signal transduction pathways; plant-environment interaction and plant biotechnology.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: CSB340H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC32H3 - Human Physiology I

An introduction to human physiology covering the nervous system, skeletal muscles, hormones, and the immune systems in both healthy and diseased states.

Prerequisite: BIOB34H3 or NROB60H3
Exclusion: PSL300H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC34H3 - Human Physiology II

This course will cover the physiology of the human respiratory, cardiovascular, renal and digestive systems. Topics include cardiac function, ECG, blood flow/pressure regulation, pulmonary mechanics, gas transfer and transport, the control of breathing, sleep-related breathing disorders, kidney function, ion regulation, water balance, acid-base balance and digestive function/regulation. Students will complete a series of computer-simulated laboratory exercises on their own time.

Prerequisite: BIOB34H3 or NROB60H3 or BIO271H
Exclusion: (BIOC33H3), (PSL302Y), PSL301H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC35H3 - Principles in Parasitology

This course introduces principles in parasitic lifestyles. Topics that will be covered include common parasite life strategies, host-parasite interactions and co-evolution, parasite immune evasion strategies, impacts on public health, and treatment and prevention strategies.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC37H3 - Plants: Life on the Edge

Plants have evolved adaptations to maximize growth, survival and reproduction under various taxing environmental conditions. This course covers the great diversity of plant structures and function in relation to ecology, focusing mainly on flowering plants.

Prerequisite: BIOB38H3 or BIOB50H3 or BIOB51H3
Exclusion: EEB340H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC39H3 - Immunology

This course introduces the molecular and cellular basis of the immune system. Topics include self versus non-self recognition, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and the structure and function of antibodies. The importance of the immune system in health and disease will be emphasized and topics include vaccination, autoimmunity, and tumour immunology.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: IMM340H, IMM341H, IMM350H, IMM351H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC40H3 - Plant Physiology

An introduction to plant biology. Topics include plant and cell structure, water balance, nutrition, transport processes at the cell and whole plant level, physiological and biochemical aspects of photosynthesis, and growth and development in response to hormonal and environmental cues.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3
Exclusion: BIO251H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC50H3 - Macroevolution

An overview of recent developments in evolutionary biology that focus on large-scale patterns and processes of evolution. Areas of emphasis may include the evolutionary history of life on earth, phylogenetic reconstruction, patterns of diversification and extinction in the fossil record, the geography of evolution, the evolution of biodiversity, and the process of speciation.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Exclusion: EEB362H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC51H3 - Biodiversity Field Course

A course with preparatory lectures on the UTSC campus and a field experience in natural settings where ecological, evolutionary, and practical aspects of biodiversity will be explored. Field work will involve outdoor activities in challenging conditions.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3 and BIOB52H3 and permission of instructor.
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: Partnership-Based Experience
Note: Students should contact the instructor 4 months before the start of the course. Additional course fees are applied, and students will need to place a deposit towards the cost of travel.

BIOC52H3 - Ecology Field Course

This course provides students with the opportunity to experience hands-on learning through informal natural history walks, and group and individual research projects, in a small-class setting. The course covers basic principles and selected techniques of field ecology and ecological questions related to organisms in their natural settings. Most of the field work takes place in the Highland Creek ravine.

Corequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Exclusion: (EEB305H)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC54H3 - Animal Behaviour

Survey of the study of animal behaviour with emphasis on understanding behavioural patterns in the context of evolutionary theory. Topics include sexual selection and conflict, parental care, social behaviour, and hypothesis testing in behavioural research.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Exclusion: EEB322H,
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC58H3 - Biological Consequences of Global Change

A lecture and tutorial course that addresses the key environmental factor that will dominate the 21st Century and life on the planet: Global Climate Change. The course will examine the factors that influence climate, from the formation of the earth to the present time, how human activities are driving current and future change, and how organisms, populations, and ecosystems are and will respond to this change. Finally, it will cover human responses and policies that can permit an adaptive response to this change.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Exclusion: EEB428H, GGR314H, (BIO428H)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC59H3 - Advanced Population Ecology

The study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms on the earth. The topics will include an understanding of organism abundance and the factors that act here: population parameters, demographic techniques, population growth, species interactions (competition, predation, herbivory, disease), and population regulation. It will include an understanding of organism distribution and the factors that act here: dispersal, habitat selection, species interactions, and physical factors.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3
Exclusion: EEB319H, (BIO319H)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC60H3 - Winter Ecology

Canada is characterized by its long and harsh winters. Any Canadian plant or animal has evolved one of three basic survival strategies: (1) migration (avoidance), (2) hibernation, and (3) resistance. These evolutionary adaptations are investigated by the example of common organisms from mainly southern Ontario.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 or BIOB51H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC61H3 - Community Ecology and Environmental Biology

An examination of the theory and methodology of community analysis, with an emphasis on the factors regulating the development of communities and ecosystems. The application of ecological theory to environmental problems is emphasized. We will examine the impacts of various factors, such as primary productivity, species interactions, disturbance, variable environments, on community and metacommunity structure, and on ecosystem function. We will also examine the impacts of climate change on the world's ecosystems.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3
Exclusion: EEB321H, (BIO321H)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC62H3 - Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Conservation

This lecture and tutorial course explores the strategic and operational aspects of zoos and aquariums in conservation. Emphasis is on contemporary issues, including the balance between animal welfare and species conservation; nutrition, health and behavioural enrichment for captive animals; in situ conservation by zoos and aquariums; captive breeding and species reintroductions; and public outreach/education.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC63H3 - Conservation Biology

A lecture and tutorial course offering an introduction to the scientific foundation and practice of conservation biology. It reviews ecological and genetic concepts constituting the basis for conservation including patterns and causes of global biodiversity, the intrinsic and extrinsic value of biodiversity, the main causes of the worldwide decline of biodiversity and the approaches to save it, as well as the impacts of global climate change.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3
Exclusion: EEB365H, (BIO365H)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOC65H3 - Environmental Toxicology

An introduction to the scientific study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms. Standard methods of assessing toxicant effects on individuals, populations, and communities are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the chemistry of major toxicant classes, and on how toxicants are processed by the human body.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and CHMA10H3 and CHMA11H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC70H3 - An Introduction to Bias in the Sciences

Research and practice in the sciences often rests on the unquestioned assertion of impartial analyses of facts. This course will take a data-informed approach to understanding how human biases can, and have, affected progress in the sciences in general, and in biology in particular. Case studies may include reviews of how science has been used to justify or sustain racism, colonialism, slavery, and the exploitation of marginalized groups. Links will be drawn to contemporary societal challenges and practices. Topics will include how biases can shape science in terms of those doing the research, the questions under study, and the types of knowledge that inform practice and teaching. Data on bias and societal costs of bias will be reviewed, as well as evidence-informed practices, structures, and individual actions which could ensure that science disrupts, rather than enables, social inequities.

Prerequisite: [Any of the following A-level courses: ANTA01H3, [BIOA01H3 and BIOA02H3], BIOA11H3, [HLTA02H3 and HLTA03H3] or [PSYA01H3 and PSYA02H3]] and [Any of the following B-level courses: any B-level BIO course, any B-level PSY course, ANTB14H3, ANTB15H3, HLTB20H3 or HLTB22H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC90H3 - Integrative Multimedia Documentary Project

In this course, students will produce engaging, documentary-style multimedia narratives that relay scientific evidence on a topic of interest to a lay audience. In order to create their documentaries, students will distill research findings reported in the primary literature and integrate knowledge from multiple fields of biology.


Notes:

1. Students in all Specialists/Specialist Co-op and Major programs in Biological Sciences are required to complete BIOC90H3 prior to graduation. In order to enroll in BIOC90H3, students must be enrolled in at least one of the following corequisite courses listed.

2. No specific grade will be assigned to BIOC90H3 on transcripts; instead, the grade assigned to work in BIOC90H3 will constitute 10% of the final grade in one of the corequisite courses that the students are concurrently enrolled in.

3. Students must receive a grade of 50% or higher for work in BIOC90H3 in order to fulfill this graduation requirement.

Prerequisite: BIOB90H3. Restricted to students in the Specialist/Specialist Co-op programs and Major Programs in Biological Sciences.
Corequisite: Concurrently enrolled in at least one of the following: BIOC12H3, BIOC14H3, BIOC20H3, BIOC32H3, BIOC34H3, BIOC39H3, BIOC40H3, BIOC54H3, or BIOC61H3.
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOC99H3 - Biology Team Research

In this introduction to academic research, a group of 3-5 students work with a faculty supervisor and TA to develop a research proposal or implement a research project. Prior to registering, students must find a faculty supervisor, form a group, then submit a permission form to the department. The permission form may be downloaded from the Biological Sciences website.

Note: Completion of this course can be used to fulfill a course requirement for the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence. Details can be found in the Biological Sciences Overview section of the Calendar.

Prerequisite: (1) Enrolment in a UTSC Major or Specialist Subject POSt offered by Biological Sciences and (2) completion of all second year core program requirements and (3) have at least 8.0 credits and (4) a commitment from a Biology faculty member to serve as supervisor and (5) formation of a group that includes at least 2 other students
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD06H3 - Advanced Topics in Neural Basis of Motor Control

Lecture/seminar-based course addressing advanced topics in the neural basis of motor control in vertebrates. The emphasis will be placed on cellular-level understanding of how motor circuits operate.

Prerequisite: BIOC32H3 or NROC34H3 or NROC64H3 or NROC69H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD07H3 - Advanced Topics and Methods in Neural Circuit Analysis

This course will survey different fields in neural circuit research ranging from sensory systems to motor control. Emphasis will be placed on new methodologies used to deconstruct circuit function, including advanced functional imaging, optogenetics, anatomical reconstruction and the latest behavioural approaches.

Prerequisite: BIOC32H3 or NROC34H3 or NROC64H3 or NROC69H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD08H3 - Theoretical Neuroscience

A seminar covering topics in the theory of neural information processing, focused on perception, action, learning and memory. Through reading, discussion and working with computer models students will learn fundamental concepts underlying current mathematical theories of brain function including information theory, population codes, deep learning architectures, auto-associative memories, reinforcement learning and Bayesian optimality.
Same as NROD08H3

Prerequisite: [NROC34H3 or NROC64H3 or NROC69H3] and [MATA29H3 or MATA30H3 or MATA31H3] and [PSYB07H3 or STAB22H3]
Exclusion: NROD08H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD12H3 - Protein Homeostasis

A lecture/seminar course on the cellular mechanisms of protein quality control. Animal and plant models will be used to highlight the mechanisms of action of selected protein folding and degradation machineries critical to cell functions. Primary literature in protein homeostasis and possible consequence of malfunction in eukaryotic cells will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: BIOC10H3 or BIOC12H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD13H3 - Herbology: The Science Behind Medicinal Plants

The use of plants in medicine has been documented for over 2,000 years. Their use is immersed in major ancient civilizations from around the World. This lecture/seminar/lab course will take the knowledge from indigenous medicine as a starting point and expand it with more recent advances in plant biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology.

Prerequisite: BIOC13H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD15H3 - Mechanism of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease

Complex mechanisms of gene regulation (e.g., epigenetics, epitranscriptomics, regulatory RNAs) govern life-trajectories in health and disease. This advanced lecture, problem-based learning and seminar course equips students with critical thinking tools to dissect advanced concepts in genetics, including biological embedding, transgenerational inheritance, genetic determinism, gene therapy, and ethics in 21st century transgenics.

Prerequisite: BIOC15H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD17H3 - Seminars in Cellular Microbiology

An overview of the most significant advances in cellular microbiology. The curriculum will include cellular mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, as well as recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells. Students will be required to participate in class discussions, and give oral presentations of scientific papers.

Prerequisite: BIOC17H3 or BIOC39H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD19H3 - Epigenetics in Health and Disease

A lecture/seminar/discussion class on the emerging field of environmental epigenetics.  Course will cover basic epigenetic mechanisms, methods in epigenetic research, epigenetic control of gene function, and the role of epigenetics in normal development and human disease.

Prerequisite: BIOC14H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD20H3 - Special Topics in Virology

This is a lecture/seminar course that will discuss advanced topics in human virology. The course focus will be on human viruses, pathogenicity in human hosts, and current literature on emerging pathogens.

Prerequisite: BIOC20H3
Exclusion: MGY440H1
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD21H3 - Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory

Applications of molecular technology continue to revolutionize our understanding of all areas of life sciences from biotechnology to human disease. This intensive laboratory, lecture / tutorial course provides students with essential information and practical experience in recombinant DNA technology, molecular biology and bio-informatics.

Prerequisite: BIOB12H3 and BIOC15H3 and BIOC17H3
Corequisite: BIOC12H3 (Note: Although listed as a corequisite, it is recommended that BIOC12H3 be taken in advance of BIOD21H3.)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience
Note: Priority will be given to students enrolled in the Specialist programs in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Co-op and non-Co-op). Additional students will be admitted only if space permits.

BIOD22H3 - Molecular Biology of the Stress Response

This course is organized around a central theme, namely the expression of heat shock (stress) genes encoding proteins is important in cellular repair/protective mechanisms. Topics include heat shock transcription factors, heat shock proteins as 'protein repair agents' that correct protein misfolding, and diseases triggered by protein misfolding such as neurodegenerative disorders.

Prerequisite: BIOC10H3 or BIOC12H3 or BIOC15H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD23H3 - Special Topics in Cell Biology

A lecture/seminar/discussion class on contemporary topics in Cell Biology.  Students will explore the primary literature becoming familiar with experimental design and methodologies used to decipher cell biology phenomena.  Student seminars will follow a series of lectures and journal club discussions.

Prerequisite: BIOC12H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD24H3 - Human Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

In this lecture seminar course, we will explore how human stem cells generate the diverse cell types of the human body, and how they can be harnessed to understand and treat diseases that arise during embryonic development or during aging. We will also discuss current ethical issues that guide research practices and policies, including the destruction of human embryos for research, gene editing, and the premature clinical translation of stem cell interventions.

Prerequisite: BIOC19H3
Exclusion: CSB329H1
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD25H3 - Genomics

A course considering the principles of genome organization and the utilization of genomic approaches to studying a wide range of problems in biology. Topics to be presented will include innovations in instrumentation and automation, a survey of genome projects, genomic variation, functional genomics, transcription profiling (microarrays), database mining and extensions to human and animal health and biotechnology.

Prerequisite: BIOC15H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD26H3 - Fungal Biology and Pathogenesis

A lecture and tutorial based course designed to provide an overview of the fungal kingdom and the properties of major fungal pathogens that contribute to disease in animals (including humans) and plants. This course will address the mechanisms and clinical implications of fungal infections and host defence mechanisms. Topics include virulence factors and the treatment and diagnosis of infection.

Prerequisite: BIOC17H3 or BIOC39H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD27H3 - Vertebrate Endocrinology

A lecture/discussion class on the structure and function of the major endocrine organs of vertebrates. The course provides knowledge of endocrine systems encompassing hormone biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, feedback, physiological actions, and pathophysiology. Recent advances in hormone research as well as contemporary issues in endocrinology will be examined.

Prerequisite: BIOB34H3 and [BIOC32H3 or BIOC34H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD29H3 - Pathobiology of Human Disease

This lecture/seminar format course will critically examine selected topics in human disease pathogenesis. Infectious and inherited diseases including those caused by human retroviruses, genetic defects and bioterrorism agents will be explored. Discussions of primary literature will encompass pathogen characteristics, genetic mutations, disease progression and therapeutic strategies.

Prerequisite: BIOC10H3 or BIOC20H3 or BIOC39H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: Partnership-Based Experience

BIOD30H3 - Plant Research and Biotechnology: Addressing Global Problems

Plant scientists working to address pressing global challenges will give presentations. In advance students will identify terminologies and methodologies needed to engage with the speaker and think critically about the research. Student teams will identify and develop background knowledge and go beyond speaker’s presentations with new questions and/or applications.

Prerequisite: BIOC15H3 or BIOC31H3 or BIOC40H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: Partnership-Based Experience
Note: Priority will be given to students enrolled in the Major Program in Plant Biology. Additional students will be admitted if space permits.

BIOD32H3 - Human Respiratory Pathophysiology

This course will examine how lung disease and other respiratory insults affect pulmonary physiology and lung function. Topics will include methods used to diagnose respiratory disease, pulmonary function in patients with various lung diseases as well as treatment options for both lung disease and lung failure.


Prerequisite: [BIOC34H3 or CSB346H1 or PSL301H1]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Note: Priority will be given the students in the Human Biology Specialist and Human Biology Major programs.

BIOD33H3 - Comparative Animal Physiology

This course will examine how various physiological systems and anatomical features are specialised to meet the environmental challenges encountered by terrestrial and aquatic animals. Topics include respiratory systems and breathing, hearts and cardiovascular systems, cardiorespiratory control, animal energetics, metabolic rate, thermoregulation, defenses against extreme temperatures, hibernation and osmotic/ionic/volume regulation.

Prerequisite: (BIOC33H3) or BIOC34H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD34H3 - Conservation Physiology

This is a combined lecture and seminar course that will discuss topics such as climate change and plastics/microplastics effects on the physiology of animals, and physiological tools and techniques used in conservation efforts. The course will focus on how physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy.

Prerequisite: BIOB34H3 and [Completion of at least 0.5 credit at the C level in Biological Sciences]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD37H3 - Biology of Plant Stress

This course examines resistance mechanisms (anatomical, cellular, biochemical, molecular) allowing plants to avoid or tolerate diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. Topics include: pathogen defence; responses to temperature, light, water and nutrient availability, salinity, and oxygen deficit; stress perception and signal transduction; methods to study stress responses; and strategies to improve stress resistance.

Prerequisite: BIOC31H3 or BIOC40H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD43H3 - Animal Movement and Exercise

A lecture and seminar/discussion course covering integrative, comparative animal locomotion and exercise physiology. Topics will include muscle physiology, neurophysiology, metabolism, energetics, thermoregulation and biomechanics. These topics will be considered within evolutionary and ecological contexts.

Prerequisite: (BIOC33H3) or BIOC34H3
Exclusion: HMB472H
Recommended Preparation: Completion of an A-level Physics course.
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD45H3 - Animal Communication

This course will examine how animals send and receive signals in different sensory modalities, and the factors that govern the evolution and structure of communication signals. Using diverse examples (from bird songs to electric fish) the course will demonstrate the importance of communication in the organization of animal behaviour, and introduce some theoretical and empirical tools used in studying the origins and structure of animal communication.

Prerequisite: BIOC54H3 or NROC34H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD48H3 - Ornithology

An overview of the evolution, ecology, behaviour, and conservation of birds. Field projects and laboratories will emphasize identification of species in Ontario.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3 and [one of the following: BIOC50H3 or BIOC54H3 or BIOC61H3]
Exclusion: EEB386H and EEB384H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD52H3 - Biodiversity and Conservation

A seminar exploration of current topics in biodiversity and conservation, including genetic, organismal, and community levels.  Examples include DNA barcoding, adaptive radiations, phylogenetic trees, and biodiversity hotspots.   Skills development in critical thinking and interpretation of the primary literature is emphasized, with coursework involving group presentations, discussions, and written analyses.

Prerequisite: BIOC50H3 or BIOC63H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD53H3 - Special Topics in Animal Behaviour

An exploration into current topics in the study of the evolutionary and ecological influences on animal behaviour. Topics may include sexual selection and conflict, social behaviour, communication, and behavioural mechanisms. Emphasis will be on current research and the quantitative and qualitative reasoning underlying our ability to understand and predict animal behaviour.

Prerequisite: BIOC54H3
Exclusion: EEB496Y, (BIO496Y)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD54H3 - Applied Conservation Biology

Canada has a complex conservation landscape. Through lectures and interactive discussions with leading Canadian conservation practitioners, this course will examine how conservation theory is put into practice in Canada from our international obligations to federal, provincial, and municipal legislation and policies.

Prerequisite: BIOC62H3 or BIOC63H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD55H3 - Experimental Animal Behaviour

A hands-on course emphasizing the logic, creative thinking, and careful methodology required to conduct rigorous research on animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspective. Students will devise and run behavioural experiments, primarily using invertebrate models.

Prerequisite: BIOC54H3
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD59H3 - Models in Ecology, Epidemiology and Conservation

Modelling is a critical tool for describing the complex dynamics of ecosystems and for addressing urgent management questions in ecology, epidemiology and conservation. In this practical introduction, students learn how to formulate ecological and epidemiological models, link them to data, and implement/analyze them using computer simulations.  The course includes approaches for modelling individuals, populations, and communities, with applications in population viability assessments, natural resource management and food security, invasive species and pest control, disease eradication, and climate change mitigation.  While not a requirement, some experience with computer programming will be beneficial for this course.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and [MATA29H3 or MATA30H3 or MATA31H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD60H3 - Spatial Ecology

The study of how space and scale influence ecological patterns and species coexistence. The course will cover three main topics: 1) spatial dynamics, such as spatial spread and dispersal models; 2) species coexistence with metapopulation/metacommunity, neutral and lottery models; and 3) spatial analysis of ecological communities. Basic concepts will be applied to ecological problems such as: species invasions, reserve design and understanding threats to island biodiversity.
Priority will be given to students enrolled in the specialist program in Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and STAB22H3 and [BIOC59H3 or BIOC61H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD62H3 - Symbiosis: Interactions Between Species

A species is the basic unit of evolution and symbiotic interactions are integral to the rise of global biodiversity. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this course will study symbiotic systems such as plant-animal, microbe-plant, and microbe-animal interactions. This course thus provides the student with a deeper understanding of how Earth's biodiversity is maintained through natural selection.

Prerequisite: BIOC16H3 or BIOC50H3
Exclusion: EEB340H
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD63H3 - From Individuals to Ecosystems: Advanced Topics in Ecology

This lecture/seminar course will discuss advanced topics in behavioural ecology, ecosystem and landscape ecology, and evolutionary ecology, with an emphasis on the impacts of past and present species interactions. Topics will vary based on current scientific literature and student interests. This course will strengthen the research, writing, and presentation skills of students while deepening their understanding of ecology.

Prerequisite: BIOB50H3 and BIOB51H3 and [0.5 credit from the following: BIOC51H3, BIOC52H3, BIOC54H3, BIOC58H3, BIOC59H3, BIOC60H3, BIOC61H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD65H3 - Pathologies of the Nervous System

An intensive examination of selected pathologies affecting the nervous system such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. These pathologies will be examined from an integrative perspective encompassing the pathogeneses, resulting symptoms, and current therapeutic approaches. This course requires critical examination of research articles.

Prerequisite: BIOB10H3 and BIOB11H3 and [0.5 credits from the following: BIOC32H3, NROC61H3, NROC64H3 or NROC69H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD66H3 - Causes and Consequences of Biodiversity

This course will combine lecture and student paper projects and presentations to explore the evolutionary and ecological processes that generate patterns of biological diversity as well as how species interactions and ecosystem function are affected by diversity. Of key interest will be how invasions, climate change, and habitat destruction affects diversity and function.

Prerequisite: BIOB51H3 and [BIOC59H3 or BIOC61H3]
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences

BIOD67H3 - Inter-University Biology Field Course

Field courses offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB) in a variety of habitats and countries, usually during the summer. OUPFB modules (courses) are posted online in January, and students must apply by the indicated deadline.

Prerequisite: Varies by module (Permission of course co-ordinator required)
Exclusion: (BIOC67H3)
Breadth Requirements: Natural Sciences
Note: Additional information is provided on the Department of Biological Sciences website http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/biosci/resources-current-students and on the OUPFB website http://www.oupfb.ca/index.html

BIOD95H3 - Supervised Study in Biology

This course is designed to permit an intensive examination of the primary literature of a select topic. Frequent consultation with the supervisor is necessary and extensive library research is required. The project will culminate in a written report.
Students must obtain a permission form and Supervised Study form from the Biological Sciences website that is to be completed and signed by the intended supervisor, and returned to SW421E. Five sessions of group instruction will form part of the coursework.

Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of 12.5 credits, of which at least 4.0 credits must be at the B- or C-level in BIO courses. Students must have permission of the instructor. In order to be eligible for BIOD95H3, with the same instructor as BIOD98Y3 or BIOD99Y3, the student and instructor must provide a plan that goes beyond the work of those courses.
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

BIOD98Y3 - Directed Research in Biology

A course designed to permit laboratory or field research or intensive examination of a selected topic in biology. Supervision of the work is arranged by mutual agreement between student and instructor.
Students must obtain a permission form from https:///www.utsc.utoronto.ca/biosci/undergraduate-research-opportunities that is to be completed and signed by the intended supervisor, and returned to SW421E. At that time, the student will be provided with an outline of the schedule and general requirements for the course. 10 sessions of group instruction will form part of the coursework.

Note: Completion of this course can be used to fulfill a course requirement for the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence. Details can be found in the Biological Sciences Overview section of the Calendar.

Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of 13.5 credits, of which at least 4.0 credits must be at the B- or C-level in BIO courses; and permission of the instructor.
Exclusion: CSB498Y, EEB498Y

BIOD99Y3 - Directed Research in Biology

Identical to BIOD98Y3 but intended as a second research experience. In order to be eligible for BIOD99Y3, with the same instructor, the student and the instructor will have to provide a plan of study that goes beyond the work of BIOD98Y3.

Note: Completion of this course can be used to fulfill a course requirement for the Certificate in Biological Sciences Research Excellence. Details can be found in the Biological Sciences Overview section of the Calendar.

Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of 13.5 credits, of which at least 4.0 credits must be at the B- or C-level in BIO courses; and permission of the instructor.
Exclusion: CSB498Y, EEB498Y

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