This course reviews the geological and environmental evolution of the North American continent over the past 4 billion years by exploring the range of plate tectonics involved in continental growth and how those processes continue today. It will explore major changes in terrestrial and marine environments through geologic time and associated organisms and natural resources of economic importance, and will conclude with an examination of recent human anthropogenic influences on our environment especially in regard to urban areas and associated problems of waste management, resource extraction, geological hazards, and the impacts of urbanization on watersheds and water resources. The course will include a weekend field trip to examine the geology and urban environmental problems of The Greater Toronto Area. It provides students in environmental science with a fundamental knowledge of the importance of environmental change on various timescales and the various field methods used to assess such changes.
15.0 credits, including at least 4.0 credits at the C- or D-level