Philosophy

Faculty List
  • W.C. Graham, M.A., Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor, Emeritus
  • B. Hellie, B.A. (Stanford), Ph.D. (Princeton), Professor
  • N. Howard, B.A. (McGill), M.A. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Southern California), Assistant Professor 
  • P.A. Kremer, B.Sc. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Pittsburgh), Professor
  • L.M. Lange, B.A., M.A. (Manitoba), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor, Emerita
  • A. Lee, B.A., M.A. (Brown), Ph.D. (New York), Assistant Professor
  • J. Nefsky, B.A. (McMaster), Ph.D. (Berkeley), Associate Professor
  • A. Pasternak, B.A., M.A. (Jerusalem), Ph.D. (Oxford), Professor
  • C. Pfeiffer, M.A. (Humboldt and Berlin), Ph.D. (Humboldt), Associate Professor
  • W.E. Seager, M.A. (Alberta), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor, Emeritus
  • S. Sedivy, B.A. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Pittsburgh), Professor
  • J. Wilson, B.A. (U.C. San Diego), Ph.D. (Cornell), Professor


Program Supervisor Email: philosophy-program-supervisor@utsc.utoronto.ca
For more information, visit the Department of Philosophy website.

Philosophy is the study of the ideas that shape our thought and activity. While we do discuss controversial issues in politics, morality, science, religion, art, etc., philosophy is more concerned with the ideas that underlie all such debates. We consider what the role of government should be, what reasons there could be to describe anything as good or bad, what proves that something is true, whether there could be a reality beyond the physical world, and whether the only value of art is the pleasure it gives. Such questions have been answered in a variety of theories, and any study in philosophy begins with learning what others have thought, but our purpose is not primarily to be historians of ideas, and assignments focus on developing the intellectual abilities and techniques required to think effectively for oneself at this deeper level. Therefore, philosophy emphasizes interpretation and original thought, reasoning, discussion and assessment.

PHLA10H3 and PHLA11H3 are a survey of the main topic-areas of philosophy. They are recommended both as courses of general interest and as an introduction to the Major and Specialist Programs.

B-level courses address specific topics such as theories of human nature, theories of mind, theories of knowledge, metaphysics, techniques of argumentation, ethics, politics, feminism, and art as well as specific periods in the History of Philosophy. Since they have no prerequisites they also serve as entry-points to philosophy. Foundational courses have been grouped into Areas of Focus, which serve as prerequisites to the C-level seminars (see Table 1.0).

C-level seminars in Philosophy are advanced courses for students who have completed an introductory course in the relevant Area of Focus (refer to Table in this section). (Instructors will admit students whose courses have adequately prepared them for a seminar. Students must provide transcripts when requesting special permission to enroll in a seminar.)

D-level seminars in Philosophy are advanced courses for students with 3.5 credits in Philosophy including 1.0 credits at the C-level. (Instructors will admit students whose courses have adequately prepared them for a seminar. Students must provide transcripts when requesting special permission to enroll in a seminar.)

D-level independent study courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced-level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior agreement of an instructor. 

Philosophy Areas of Focus:

*Students who have completed, in a previous session, a course that is no longer being offered (i.e., appears in round brackets) may make use of that course to fulfill the prerequisite requirement.

Students who are unsure whether they meet a course prerequisite are encouraged to contact the program supervisor for further guidance: philosophy-program-supervisor@utsc.utoronto.ca.

Program Combination Restrictions in Philosophy

The Specialist, Major and Minor program in Philosophy may not be combined;
Students may combine the Minor program in Biomedical Ethics with either the Specialist in Philosophy or the Major in Philosophy.

Experiential Learning and Outreach

For a community-based experiential learning opportunity in your academic field of interest, consider the course CTLB03H3, which can be found in the Teaching and Learning section of the Calendar.

philosophy Programs

SPECIALIST PROGRAM IN PHILOSOPHY (ARTS) - SCSPE0231

Program Requirements
Students must complete at least 12.0 credits in Philosophy including PHLB50H3 Symbolic Logic I or PHLB55H3 Puzzles and Paradoxes, and at least 5.0 credits at the C- or D-level of which 1.0 must be at the D-level. MATC09H3 can be used as a Philosophy course for these purposes. Students are encouraged, though not required, to complete at least 0.5 credit as a reading course at the D-level.

Note: PHLB99H3 Philosophical Writing and Methodology, is strongly recommended for the Philosophy Specialist and Major programs and is important preparation for advanced C- and D-level studies in Philosophy.

SPECIALIST (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN PHILOSOPHY (ARTS) - SCSPE0231C

For more information, please contact:

Academic Program Advisor: jason.ferreira@utoronto.ca

Co-op Program Coordinator: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Specialist (Co-op) Program in Philosophy is a Work Integrated Learning (WIL) program that combines academic studies with paid work terms in the public, private, and/or non-profit sectors. The program provides students with the opportunity to develop the academic and professional skills required to pursue employment in these areas, or to continue on to graduate training in an academic field related to Philosophy upon graduation.
In addition to their academic course requirements, students must successfully complete the additive Arts & Science Co-op Work Term Preparation courses and a minimum of two Co-op work terms.

Enrolment Requirements
The minimum qualifications for entry are 4.0 credits, plus a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Program Requirements
Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Specialist Program in Philosophy.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete two Co-op work terms, each of four-months duration. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Specialist (Co-op) Program in Philosophy and have completed at least 9.0 credits, including one of PHLB50H3, PHLB55H3 or MATC09H3.
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete up to four Co-op specific courses. These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, and to perform professionally in the workplace. These courses must be completed in sequence, and are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

Co-op Preparation Course Requirements:

1. COPB50H3/​(COPD01H3) – Foundations for Success in Arts & Science Co-op
- Students entering Co-op from outside of UTSC (high school or other postsecondary) will complete this course in Fall, Winter, or Summer of their first year at UTSC. 
- Current UTSC students entering Co-op in April/May will complete this course in the Summer semester.
- Current UTSC students entering Co-op in July/August will complete this course in the Winter semester.

2. COPB51H3/​(COPD03H3) – Preparing to Compete for your Work Term
- This course will be completed eight months in advance of the first scheduled work term.

3. COPB52H3/​(COPD11H3) – Managing your Job Search and Transition to the Workplace
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the first work scheduled work term.

4. COPC98H3/​(COPD12H3) – Integrating Your Work Term Experience Part I
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the second scheduled work term.

5. COPC99H3/​(COPD13H3) – Integrating Your Work Term Experience Part II
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the third scheduled work term (for programs that require the completion of 3 work terms and/or four months in advance of any additional work terms that have been approved by the Arts and Science Co-op Office.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This, in turn, requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MAJOR PROGRAM IN PHILOSOPHY (ARTS) - SCMAJ0231

Program Requirements
Students must complete at least 7.0 credits in Philosophy including PHLB50H3 Symbolic Logic 1 or PHLB55H3 Puzzles and Paradoxes and at least 3.0 credits must be at the C- or D-level. MATC09H3 can be used as a Philosophy course for these purposes.

Note: PHLB99H3 Philosophical Writing and Methodology, is strongly recommended for the Philosophy Specialist and Major programs and is important preparation for advanced C- and D-level studies in Philosophy.

MAJOR (CO-OPERATIVE) PROGRAM IN PHILOSOPHY (ARTS) - SCMAJ0231C

For more information, please contact:

Academic Program Advisor: jason.ferreira@utoronto.ca

Co-op Program Coordinator: coopsuccess.utsc@utoronto.ca

The Major (Co-op) Program in Philosophy is a Work Integrated Learning (WIL) program that combines academic studies with paid work terms in the public, private, and/or non-profit sectors. The program provides students with the opportunity to develop the academic and professional skills required to pursue employment in these areas, or to continue on to graduate training in an academic field related to Philosophy upon graduation.

In addition to their academic course requirements, students must successfully complete the additive Arts & Science Co-op Work Term Preparation courses and a minimum of two Co-op work terms.

Enrolment Requirements
The minimum qualifications for entry are 4.0 credits, plus a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5.

Current Co-op Students:
Students admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt in their first year of study must request a Co-op Subject POSt on ACORN upon completion of 4.0 credits and must meet the minimum qualifications for entry as noted above.

Prospective Co-op Students:
Prospective Co-op students (i.e., those not yet admitted to a Co-op Degree POSt) must submit a program request on ACORN, and meet the minimum qualifications noted above. Deadlines follow the Limited Enrolment Program Application Deadlines set by the Office of the Registrar each year. Failure to submit the program request on ACORN will result in that student's application not being considered.

Program Requirements
Students must complete the program requirements as described in the Major Program in Philosophy.

Co-op Work Term Requirements
Students must satisfactorily complete two Co-op work terms, each of four-months duration. To be eligible for their first work term, students must be enrolled in the Major (Co-op) Program in Philosophy and have completed at least 9.0 credits, including one of PHLB50H3, PHLB55H3 or MATC09H3.
In addition to their academic program requirements, Co-op students complete up to four Co-op specific courses. These courses are designed to prepare students for their job search and work term experience, and to maximize the benefits of their Co-op work terms. They cover a variety of topics intended to assist students in developing the skills and tools required to secure work terms that are appropriate to their program of study, and to perform professionally in the workplace. These courses must be completed in sequence, and are taken in addition to a full course load. They are recorded on transcripts as credit/no credit (CR/NCR) and are considered to be additive credit to the 20.0 required degree credits. No additional course fee is assessed as registration is included in the Co-op Program fee.

Co-op Preparation Course Requirements:

1. COPB50H3/​(COPD01H3) – Foundations for Success in Arts & Science Co-op
- Students entering Co-op from outside of UTSC (high school or other postsecondary) will complete this course in Fall, Winter, or Summer of their first year at UTSC. 
- Current UTSC students entering Co-op in April/May will complete this course in the Summer semester.
- Current UTSC students entering Co-op in July/August will complete this course in the Winter semester.

2. COPB51H3/​(COPD03H3) – Preparing to Compete for your Work Term
- This course will be completed eight months in advance of the first scheduled work term.

3. COPB52H3/​(COPD11H3) – Managing your Job Search and Transition to the Workplace
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the first work scheduled work term.

4. COPC98H3/​(COPD12H3) – Integrating Your Work Term Experience Part I
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the second scheduled work term.

5. COPC99H3/​(COPD13H3) – Integrating Your Work Term Experience Part II
- This course will be completed four months in advance of the third scheduled work term (for programs that require the completion of 3 work terms and/or four months in advance of any additional work terms that have been approved by the Arts and Science Co-op Office.

Students must be available for work terms in each of the Fall, Winter and Summer semesters and must complete at least one of their required work terms in either a Fall or Winter semester. This, in turn, requires that students take courses during at least one Summer semester.

For information on fees, status in Co-op programs, and certification of completion of Co-op programs, see the Co-operative Programs section and the Arts and Science Co-op section in the UTSC Calendar.

MINOR PROGRAM IN BIOMEDICAL ETHICS (ARTS) - SCMIN0241

Program Requirements

This program requires students to complete a total of 4.0 credits:

1. 0.5 credit:
PHLB09H3 Biomedical Ethics

2. 1.0 credit in Biomedical Ethics (select from the following courses):
PHLC07H3 Death and Dying
PHLC10H3 Topics in Bioethics
PHLD09H3 Advanced Seminar in Bioethics

3. 0.5 credit in Value Theory (select from the following courses):
PHLA11H3 Introduction to Ethics
PHLB02H3 Environmental Ethics
PHLB05H3 Social Issues
PHLB06H3 Business Ethics
PHLB07H3 Ethics
PHLB11H3 Philosophy of Law
PHLB17H3 Introduction to Political Philosophy
PHLC05H3 Ethical Theory
PHLC06H3 Topics in Ethical Theory
PHLC92H3 Political Philosophy
PHLC93H3 Topics in Political Philosophy
PHLD05H3 Advanced Seminar in Ethics
PHLD78H3 Advanced Seminar in Political Philosophy

4. 2.0 additional credits in Philosophy courses*:
*HLTA02H3 and MATC09H3 can be counted for the purpose of fulfilling this general philosophy credit requirement.

Note: The Minor program in Biomedical Ethics cannot be combined with the Minor program in Philosophy; however, students may combine the Minor program in Biomedical Ethics with either the Major or Specialist programs in Philosophy.

MINOR PROGRAM IN PHILOSOPHY (ARTS) - SCMIN0231

Program Requirements
Students must complete 4.0 credits in Philosophy of which at least 1.0 credit must be at the C- or D-level. MATC09H3 can be used as a Philosophy course for these purposes.

 

Philosophy Courses

PHLA10H3 - Reason and Truth

An introduction to philosophy focusing on issues of rationality, metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. Topics may include: the nature of mind, freedom, the existence of God, the nature and knowability of reality. These topics will generally be introduced through the study of key texts from the history of philosophy.

Exclusion: PHL100Y1, PHL101Y1
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLA11H3 - Introduction to Ethics

Ethics is concerned with concrete questions about how we ought to treat one another as well as more general questions about how to justify our ethical beliefs. This course is an introduction that both presents basic theories of ethics and considers their application to contemporary moral problems.

Exclusion: PHL275H, PHL100Y1, PHL101Y1
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLB02H3 - Environmental Ethics

This course examines ethical issues raised by our actions and our policies for the environment. Do human beings stand in a moral relationship to the environment? Does the environment have moral value and do non-human animals have moral status? These fundamental questions underlie more specific contemporary issues such as sustainable development, alternative energy, and animal rights.

Exclusion: PHL273H
Recommended Preparation: PHLA11H3
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB03H3 - Philosophy of Aesthetics

An examination of challenges posed by the radical changes and developments in modern and contemporary art forms. For example, given the continuously exploding nature of art works, what do they have in common - what is it to be an artwork?

Exclusion: PHL285H
Breadth Requirements: Arts, Literature and Language

PHLB04H3 - Philosophy and Literature

This course examines some of the classic problems concerning literary texts, such as the nature of interpretation, questions about the power of literary works and their relationship to ethical thought, and problems posed by fictional works - how can we learn from works that are fictional and how can we experience genuine emotions from works that we know are fictional?

Breadth Requirements: Arts, Literature and Language

PHLB05H3 - Social Issues

An examination of contemporary or historical issues that force us to consider and articulate our values and commitments. The course will select issues from a range of possible topics, which may include globalization, medical ethics, war and terrorism, the role of government in a free society, equality and discrimination.

Breadth Requirements: Social and Behavioural Sciences

PHLB06H3 - Business Ethics

An examination of philosophical issues in ethics, social theory, and theories of human nature as they bear on business. What moral obligations do businesses have? Can social or environmental costs and benefits be calculated in a way relevant to business decisions? Do political ideas have a role within business?

Exclusion: MGSC14H3/(MGTC59H3), PHL295H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB07H3 - Ethics

What is the difference between right and wrong? What is 'the good life'? What is well-being? What is autonomy? These notions are central in ethical theory, law, bioethics, and in the popular imagination. In this course we will explore these concepts in greater depth, and then consider how our views about them shape our views about ethics.

Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB09H3 - Biomedical Ethics

This course is an examination of moral and legal problems in medical practice, in biomedical research, and in the development of health policy. Topics may include: concepts of health and disease, patients' rights, informed consent, allocation of scarce resources, euthanasia, risks and benefits in research and others.

Exclusion: PHL281H, (PHL281Y)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB11H3 - Philosophy of Law

A discussion of right and rights, justice, legality, and related concepts. Particular topics may include: justifications for the legal enforcement of morality, particular ethical issues arising out of the intersection of law and morality, such as punishment, freedom of expression and censorship, autonomy and paternalism, constitutional protection of human rights.

Exclusion: PHL271H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB12H3 - Philosophy of Sexuality

Philosophical issues about sex and sexual identity in the light of biological, psychological and ethical theories of sex and gender; the concept of gender; male and female sex roles; perverse sex; sexual liberation; love and sexuality.

Exclusion: PHL243H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB13H3 - Philosophy and Feminism

What is feminism? What is a woman? Or a man? Are gender relations natural or inevitable? Why do gender relations exist in virtually every society? How do gender relations intersect with other social relations, such as economic class, culture, race, sexual orientation, etc.?

Exclusion: PHL267H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB17H3 - Introduction to Political Philosophy

This course will introduce some important concepts of and thinkers in political philosophy from the history of political philosophy to the present. These may include Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, G.W.F. Hegel, John Stuart Mill, or Karl Marx. Topics discussed may include political and social justice, liberty and the criteria of good government.

Exclusion: PHL265H, (POLB71H3); in addition, PHLB17H3 may not be taken after or concurrently with POLB72H3
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB18H3 - Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

This course will provide an accessible understanding of AI systems, such as ChatGPT, focusing on the ethical issues raised by ongoing advances in AI. These issues include the collection and use of big data, the use of AI to manipulate human beliefs and behaviour, its application in the workplace and its impact on the future of employment, as well as the ethical standing of autonomous AI systems.

Prerequisite: None
Corequisite: None
Exclusion: None
Recommended Preparation: PHLA10H3 or PHLA11H3. These courses provide an introductory background of philosophical reasoning and core background concepts, which would assist students taking a B level course in Philosophy.
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLB20H3 - Belief, Knowledge, and Truth

An examination of the nature of knowledge, and our ability to achieve it. Topics may include the question of whether any of our beliefs can be certain, the problem of scepticism, the scope and limits of human knowledge, the nature of perception, rationality, and theories of truth.

Exclusion: (PHL230H)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB30H3 - Existentialism

A study of the views and approaches pioneered by such writers as Kierkegaard, Husserl, Jaspers, Heidegger and Sartre. Existentialism has had influence beyond philosophy, impacting theology, literature and psychotherapy. Characteristic topics include the nature of the self and its relations to the world and society, self-deception, and freedom of choice.

Exclusion: PHL220H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB31H3 - Introduction to Ancient Philosophy

A survey of some main themes and figures of ancient philosophical thought, concentrating on Plato and Aristotle. Topics include the ultimate nature of reality, knowledge, and the relationship between happiness and virtue.

Exclusion: PHL200Y, PHL202H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB33H3 - God, Self, World

This course is a thematic introduction to the history of metaphysics, focusing on topics such as the nature of God, our own nature as human beings, and our relation to the rest of the world. We will read a variety of texts, from ancient to contemporary authors, that will introduce us to concepts such as substance, cause, essence and existence, mind and body, eternity and time, and the principle of sufficient reason. We will also look at the ethical implications of various metaphysical commitments.  

Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB35H3 - Introduction to Early Modern Philosophy

This course is an introduction to the major themes and figures of seventeenth and eighteenth century philosophy, from Descartes to Kant, with emphasis on metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics.  

Exclusion: PHL210Y
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB50H3 - Symbolic Logic I

An introduction to formal, symbolic techniques of reasoning. Sentential logic and quantification theory (or predicate logic), including identity will be covered. The emphasis is on appreciation of and practice in techniques, for example, the formal analysis of English statements and arguments, and for construction of clear and rigorous proofs.

Exclusion: PHL245H
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

PHLB55H3 - Puzzles and Paradoxes

Time travel, free will, infinity, consciousness: puzzling and paradoxical issues like these, brought under control with logic, are the essence of philosophy. Through new approaches to logic, we will find new prospects for understanding philosophical paradoxes.
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

PHLB58H3 - Reasoning Under Uncertainty

Much thought and reasoning occur in a context of uncertainty. How do we know if a certain drug works against a particular illness? Who will win the next election? This course examines various strategies for dealing with uncertainty. Topics include induction and its problems, probabilistic reasoning and the nature of probability, the assignment of causes and the process of scientific confirmation and refutation. Students will gain an appreciation of decision making under uncertainty in life and science.

Exclusion: PHL246H1, PHL246H5
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

PHLB60H3 - Introduction to Metaphysics

A consideration of problems in metaphysics: the attempt to understand 'how everything fits together' in the most general sense of this phrase. Some issues typically covered include: the existence of God, the nature of time and space, the nature of mind and the problem of the freedom of the will.

Exclusion: (PHL231H)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB81H3 - Theories of Mind

An examination of questions concerning the nature of mind. Philosophical questions considered may include: what is consciousness, what is the relation between the mind and the brain, how did the mind evolve and do animals have minds, what is thinking, what are feelings and emotions, and can machines have minds.

Exclusion: PHL240H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB91H3 - Theories of Human Nature

An exploration of theories which provide answers to the question 'What is a human being?', answers that might be summarized with catchphrases such as: 'Man is a rational animal,' 'Man is a political animal,' 'Man is inherently individual,' 'Man is inherently social,' etc. Authors studied are: Aristotle, Hobbes, Rousseau, Darwin, Marx, Freud and Sartre.

Exclusion: PHL244H, (PHLC91H3)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLB99H3 - Philosophical Writing and Methodology

In this writing-intensive course, students will become familiar with tools and techniques that will enable them to competently philosophize, on paper and in person. Students will learn how to write an introduction and how to appropriately structure philosophy papers, how to accurately present someone else's position or argumentation, how to critically assess someone else's view or argumentation, and how to present and defend their own positive proposal or argumentation concerning a given topic. Students will learn many more specific skills, such as, how to `signpost' what students are doing, how to identify and charitably interpret ambiguities in another discussion, and how to recognize and apply various argumentative strategies.

Prerequisite: 0.5 credit in PHL courses, excluding [PHLB50H3 and PHLB55H3]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Note: This course is strongly recommended for students enrolled in the Specialist and Major program in Philosophy. It is open to students enrolled in the Minor program in Philosophy as well as all other students by permission of the instructor.

PHLC03H3 - Topics in the Philosophy of Aesthetics

An exploration of some current issues concerning the various forms of art such as: the role of the museum, the loss of beauty and the death of art.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [PHLB03H3 and an additional 1.0 credit in PHL courses]
Breadth Requirements: Arts, Literature and Language

PHLC05H3 - Ethical Theory

Philosophers offer systematic theories of ethics: theories that simultaneously explain what ethics is, why it matters, and what it tells us to do. This course is a careful reading of classic philosophical texts by the major systematic thinkers in the Western tradition of ethics. Particular authors read may vary from instructor to instructor.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: (PHLC01H3), PHL375H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC06H3 - Topics in Ethical Theory

Philosophical ethics simultaneously aims to explain what ethics is, why it matters, and what it tells us to do. This is what is meant by the phrase 'ethical theory.' In this class we will explore specific topics in ethical theory in some depth. Specific topics may vary with the instructor.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: (PHLC01H3)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC07H3 - Death and Dying

An intermediate-level study of the ethical and legal issues raised by death and dying. Topics may vary each year, but could include the definition of death and the legal criteria for determining death, the puzzle of how death can be harmful, the ethics of euthanasia and assisted suicide, the relationship between death and having a meaningful life, and the possibility of surviving death.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus, see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL382H1
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC08H3 - Topics in Arabic and Jewish Philosophy

This is an advanced, reading and discussion intensive course in the history of Arabic and Jewish thought, beginning with highly influential medieval thinkers such as Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā), al-Ghazālī, Al Fārābī, Averroes (Ibn Rushd), and Maimonides, and ending with 20th century philosophers (among them Arendt, Freud and Levinas).

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [and additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the History of Philosophy area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC09H3 - Topics in Continental Philosophy

This course is a reading and discussion intensive course in 20th century German and French European Philosophy. Among the movements we shall study will be phenomenology, existentialism, and structuralism. We will look at the writings of Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Michel Foucault, and Gilles Deleuze, among others.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC10H3 - Topics in Bioethics

An intermediate-level study of bioethical issues. This course will address particular issues in bioethics in detail. Topics will vary from year to year, but may include such topics as reproductive ethics, healthcare and global justice, ethics and mental health, the patient-physician relationship, or research on human subjects.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus, see Table 1.0 for reference]
Recommended Preparation: PHLB09H3 is strongly recommended
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC13H3 - Topics in Philosophy and Feminism

Feminist philosophy includes both criticism of predominant approaches to philosophy that may be exclusionary for women and others, and the development of new approaches to various areas of philosophy. One or more topics in feminist philosophy will be discussed in some depth. Particular topics will vary with the instructor.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory sub-discipline area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC14H3 - Topics in Non-Western Philosophy

Contemporary Philosophy, as taught in North America, tends to focus on texts and problematics associated with certain modes of philosophical investigation originating in Greece and developed in Europe and North America. There are rich alternative modes of metaphysical investigation, however, associated with Arabic, Indian, East Asian, and African philosophers and philosophizing. In this course, we will explore one or more topics drawn from metaphysics, epistemology, or value theory, from the points of view of these alternative philosophical traditions.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses
Recommended Preparation: PHLB99H3
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC20H3 - Theory of Knowledge

A follow up to PHLB20H3. This course will consider one or two epistemological topics in depth, with an emphasis on class discussion.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL332H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC22H3 - Topics in Theory of Knowledge

This course addresses particular issues in the theory of knowledge in detail. Topics will vary from year to year but may typically include such topics as The Nature of Knowledge, Scepticism, Epistemic Justification, Rationality and Rational Belief Formation.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL332H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC31H3 - Topics in Ancient Philosophy: Plato

This course examines the foundational work of Plato in the major subject areas of philosophy: ethics, politics, metaphysics, theory of knowledge and aesthetics.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the History of Philosophy area of focus, see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL303H1
Recommended Preparation: PHLB31H3 is strongly recommended
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC32H3 - Topics in Ancient Philosophy: Aristotle

This course examines the foundational work of Aristotle in the major subject areas of philosophy: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, and aesthetics.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the History of Philosophy area of focus, see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL304H1
Recommended Preparation: PHLB31H3 strongly recommended
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC35H3 - Topics in Early Modern Philosophy: Rationalism

In this course we study the major figures of early modern rationalism, Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, with a particular emphasis on topics such as substance, knowledge and sense perception, the mind-body problem, and the existence and nature of God.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the History of Philosophy area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL310H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC36H3 - Topics in Early Modern Philosophy: Empiricism

In this course we study major figures of early modern empiricism, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, with a particular emphasis on topics such as substance, knowledge and sense perception, the mind-body problem, and the existence and nature of God.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the History of Philosophy area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL311H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC37H3 - Kant

This course focuses on the thought of Immanuel Kant, making connections to some of Kant’s key predecessors such as Hume or Leibniz. The course will focus either on Kant’s metaphysics and epistemology, or his ethics, or his aesthetics.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [[PHLB33H3 or PHLB35H3] and additional 1.0 credit in PHL courses]
Exclusion: PHL314H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC43H3 - History of Analytic Philosophy

This course explores the foundation of Analytic Philosophy in the late 19th and early 20th century, concentrating on Frege, Russell, and Moore. Special attention paid to the discovery of mathematical logic, its motivations from and consequences for metaphysics and the philosophy of mind.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, including PHLB50H3 and 0.5 credit from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL325H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC51H3 - Symbolic Logic II

After consolidating the material from Symbolic Logic I, we will introduce necessary background for metalogic, the study of the properties of logical systems. We will introduce set theory, historically developed in parallel to logic. We conclude with some basic metatheory of the propositional logic learned in Symbolic Logic I.

Prerequisite: PHLB50H3 or CSCB36H3 or MATB24H3 or MATB43H3
Exclusion: MATC09H3, PHL345H
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

PHLC60H3 - Metaphysics

A follow up to PHLB60H3. This course will consider one or two metaphysical topics in depth, with an emphasis on class discussion.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Exclusion: PHL331H, PHL332H (UTM only)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC72H3 - Philosophy of Science

This course will consider one or two topics in the Philosophy of Science in depth, with an emphasis on class discussion.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC80H3 - Philosophy of Language

An examination of philosophical issues about language. Philosophical questions to be covered include: what is the relation between mind and language, what is involved in linguistic communication, is language an innate biological feature of human beings, how do words manage to refer to things, and what is meaning.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC86H3 - Issues in the Philosophy of Mind

Advance Issues in the Philosophy of Mind. For example, an examination of arguments for and against the idea that machines can be conscious, can think, or can feel. Topics may include: Turing's test of machine intelligence, the argument based on Gödel's theorem that there is an unbridgeable gulf between human minds and machine capabilities, Searle's Chinese Room thought experiment.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC89H3 - Topics in Analytic Philosophy

Advanced topic(s) in Analytic Philosophy. Sample contemporary topics: realism/antirealism; truth; interrelations among metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind and of science.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC92H3 - Political Philosophy

An examination of some central philosophical problems of contemporary political philosophy.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC93H3 - Topics in Political Philosophy

This course will examine some contemporary debates in recent political philosophy. Topics discussed may include the nature of justice, liberty and the criteria of good government, and problems of social coordination.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Value Theory area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC95H3 - Topics in the Philosophy of Mind

Advanced topics in the Philosophy of mind, such as an exploration of philosophical problems and theories of consciousness. Topics to be examined may include: the nature of consciousness and 'qualitative experience', the existence and nature of animal consciousness, the relation between consciousness and intentionality, as well as various philosophical theories of consciousness.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses, of which 0.5 credit must be from the Mind, Metaphysics and Epistemology area of focus – see Table 1.0 for reference]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLC99H3 - Philosophical Development Seminar

This course aims to foster a cohesive cohort among philosophy specialists and majors. The course is an intensive seminar that will develop advanced philosophical skills by focusing on textual analysis, argumentative techniques, writing and oral presentation. Students will work closely with the instructor and their peers to develop a conference-style, research-length paper. Each year, the course will focus on a different topic drawn from the core areas of philosophy for its subject matter. This course is strongly recommended for students in the Specialist and Major programs in Philosophy.

Prerequisite: Any 4.5 credits and [an additional 1.5 credits in PHL courses]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD05H3 - Advanced Seminar in Ethics

This course offers an in-depth investigation into selected topics in moral philosophy.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [[PHLC05H3 or PHLC06H3] and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Exclusion: PHL407H, PHL475H
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD09H3 - Advanced Seminar in Bioethics

This advanced seminar will delve deeply into an important topic in bioethics. The topics will vary from year to year. Possible topics include: a detailed study of sperm and ovum donation; human medical research in developing nations; informed consent; classification of mental illness.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [PHLC10H3 and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD20H3 - Advanced Seminar in Theory of Knowledge

This courses addresses core issues in the theory of knowledge at an advanced level. Topics to be discussed may include The Nature of Knowledge, Scepticism, Epistemic Justification, Rationality and Rational Belief Formation.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [[PHLC20H3 or PHLC22H3] and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD31H3 - Advanced Seminar in Ancient Philosophy

This course offers in-depth examination of selected topics from the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, as well as the Epicurean and Stoic schools of thought. Topics will range from the major areas of philosophy: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics and aesthetics.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [[PHLC31H3 or PHLC32H3] and [an additional 0.5 credit at the C-level]]
Recommended Preparation: It is strongly recommended that students take both PHLC31H3 and PHLC32H3.
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD35H3 - Advanced Seminar in Rationalism

This course offers in-depth examination of the philosophical approach offered by one of the three principal Rationalist philosophers, Descartes, Spinoza or Leibniz.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [PHLC35H3 and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD36H3 - Advanced Seminar in Empiricism

In this course, we will explore in depth certain foundational topics in the philosophy of Berkeley and Hume, with an eye to elucidating both the broadly Empiricist motivations for their approaches and how their approaches to key topics differ. Topics may address the following questions: Is there a mind-independent world? What is causation? Is the ontological or metaphysical status of persons different from that of ordinary objects? Does God exist?

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [PHLC36H3 and an additional 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD43H3 - Advanced Seminar in History of Analytic Philosophy

This course examines Analytic Philosophy in the mid-20th century, concentrating on Wittgenstein, Ramsey, Carnap, and Quine. Special attention paid to the metaphysical foundations of logic, and the nature of linguistic meaning, including the relations between "truth-conditional" and "verificationist" theories.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [PHLC43H3 and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Exclusion: PHL325H, (PHLC44H3)
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD51H3 - Metalogic

Symbolic Logic deals with formal languages: you work inside formal proof systems, and also consider the "semantics", dealing with truth, of formal languages. Instead of working inside formal systems, Metalogic treats systems themselves as objects of study, from the outside.

Prerequisite: PHLC51H3
Exclusion: PHL348H, (PHLC54H3)
Breadth Requirements: Quantitative Reasoning

PHLD78H3 - Advanced Seminar in Political Philosophy

This advanced seminar will delve more deeply into an issue in political philosophy.  Topics will vary from year to year, but some examples include: distributive justice, human rights, and the political morality of freedom.  Students will be required to present material to the class at least once during the semester.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including 1.0 credit at the C-level
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD79H3 - Advanced Seminar in Metaphysics

This seminar addresses core issues in metaphysics. Topics to be discussed may include the nature of persons and personal identity, whether physicalism is true, what is the relation of mind to reality in general, the nature of animal minds and the question of whether machines can possess minds.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including 1.0 credit at the C-level

PHLD85H3 - Advanced Seminar in Philosophy: Socrates Project Mentorship

The Socrates Project Mentorship Seminar is a half-year seminar course that provides experiential learning in philosophy in conjunction with a teaching assignment to lead tutorials and mark assignments in PHLA10H3. This course is designed for a select number of returning Socrates Project participants chosen to mentor new Project participants. These students will solidify their teaching/grading skills and advise new participants in the Project. The seminar course will further enhance their philosophical abilities in an extension of PHLD88Y3. Roughly 75% of the seminar will be devoted to a more in-depth study of the topics taken up in the PHLA10H3 Reason and Truth. Students will write a seminar paper on one of these topics under the supervision of a UTSC Philosophy faculty member working in the relevant area, and they will give an oral presentation on their research topic each semester. The remaining 25% of the seminar will focus on the further exploration of the methods and challenges of teaching philosophy, benchmark grading, and grading generally and, most distinctively, issues of mentorship of new participants to the Socrates Project.

Note: The teaching component of the Socrates Project will consist of the following components. Students will optionally attend two 1-hour PHLA10H3 lectures each week, and teach one tutorial of approximately 25 students, meeting with them for 1 hour every other week. Students will grade papers, hold office hours, and meet with the relevant professor as needed as well as provide mentorship to new participants in the Socrates Project.

Prerequisite: PHLD88Y3
Exclusion: PHL489Y1, PHL489Y5
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLD86H3 - Advanced Seminar in Philosophy: Socrates Project Mentorship

The Socrates Project Mentorship Seminar is a half-year seminar course that provides experiential learning in philosophy in conjunction with a teaching assignment to lead tutorials and mark assignments in PHLA11H3. This course is designed for a select number of returning Socrates Project participants chosen to mentor new Project participants. These students will solidify their teaching/grading skills and advise new participants in the Project. The seminar course will further enhance their philosophical abilities in an extension of PHLD88Y3. Roughly 75% of the seminar will be devoted to a more in-depth study of the topics taken up in the PHLA11H3 Introduction to Ethics. Students will write a seminar paper on one of these topics under the supervision of a UTSC Philosophy faculty member working in the relevant area, and they will give an oral presentation on their research topic each semester. The remaining 25% of the seminar will focus on the further exploration of the methods and challenges of teaching philosophy, benchmark grading, and grading generally and, most distinctively, issues of mentorship of new participants to the Socrates Project.


Note: The teaching component of the Socrates Project will consist of the following components. Students will optionally attend two 1-hour PHLA11H3 lectures each week, and teach one tutorial of approximately 25 students, meeting with them for 1 hour every other week. Students will grade papers, hold office hours, and meet with the relevant professor as needed as well as provide mentorship to new participants in the Socrates Project.

Prerequisite: PHLD88Y3
Exclusion: PHL489Y1, PHL489Y5
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLD87H3 - Advanced Seminar in Philosophy of Mind

This course offers in-depth examination of selected contemporary theories and issues in philosophy of mind, such as theories of perception or of consciousness, and contemporary research examining whether minds must be embodied or embedded in a larger environment.

Prerequisite: 3.5 credits in PHL courses, including [[PHLC95H3 or PHLC86H3] and 0.5 credit at the C-level]
Exclusion: PHL405H
Recommended Preparation: PHLC95H3
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies

PHLD88Y3 - Advanced Seminar in Philosophy: Socrates Project

The Socrates Project Seminar is a full-year seminar course that provides experiential learning in philosophy in conjunction with a teaching assignment to lead tutorials and mark assignments in PHLA10H3 and PHLA11H3. Roughly 75% of the seminar will be devoted to more in-depth study of the topics taken up in PHLA10H3 and PHLA11H3. Students will write a seminar paper on one of these topics under the supervision of a UTSC Philosophy faculty member working in the relevant area, and they will give an oral presentation on their research topic each semester. The remaining 25% of the seminar will focus on the methods and challenges of teaching philosophy, benchmark grading, and grading generally.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and Department.
Exclusion: PHL489Y1, PHL489Y5
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLD89Y3 - Advanced Seminar in Philosophy: The Socrates Project for Applied Ethics

The Socrates Project for Applied Ethics is a seminar course which occurs over two terms that provides experiential learning in philosophy in conjunction with a teaching assignment to lead tutorials and mark assignments in PHLB09H3. Roughly 75% of the seminar will be devoted to a more in-depth study of the topics taken up in PHLB09H3. Students will write a seminar paper on one of these topics under the supervision of a UTSC Philosophy faculty member working in the relevant area, and they will give an oral presentation on their research topic each semester. The remaining 25% of the seminar will focus on the methods and challenges of teaching philosophy, benchmark grading, and grading generally.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and Department.
Breadth Requirements: History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

PHLD90H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD91H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD92H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD93H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD94H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD95H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD96H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD97H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD98H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

PHLD99H3 - Independent Study

These courses are intended for qualified students who wish to engage in advanced level work on a well-defined topic of their choice. These courses are only available with the prior arrangement of an instructor.

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